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SHORT QUESTIONS

What is air pollution?
Due to human actions and activities, air becomes dirty and smoky which is called air pollution. It is not fit for breathing and causes different respiratory diseases.

Write a short note on water pollution.
The change of physical, chemical and biological properties of water is called water pollution. It makes water poisonous. It also causes different diseases.

How noise pollution affects our life, Explain briefly.
·         It is slow poisoning for us.
·         It has psychological impacts i.e. aggressive mode, anger and discomfort of sleep.
·         It can cause deafness, hypertension, headache, increased heartbeat, stress and tension.
LONG QUESTION

What do you mean by an Environmental Problem?
·         Addition or change in the environment causes environmental problems.
·         These problems are very dangerous for health.
·         There are two major types of environmental problems.
o   Pollution includes soil pollution, water pollution, air pollution, noise pollution etc.
o   Global warming is the rapid increase of earth's temperature.

Highlight various causes of Environmental Problems?
Various environmental problems and their causes are as under:
Cause of Air Pollution:
  • Volcanic actions
  • Forest fires
  • Smoke of Vehicles and Factories
  • Burning of coal and other organic products.
  • Power Stations.
Cause of Water Pollution:
  • Polluted water of Industries
  • Sewage water.
  • Soil Erosion
  • Landslides
  • Fertilizers
  • Leakage of gasoline and septic tanks
Cause of Noise Pollution:
  • All kinds of vehicles
  • Nearby Airports
  • Nearby Industries
  • Televisions and Music Systems
Cause of Soil Pollution:
  • Chemicals
  • Agricultures wastes and fertilizers
  • Nuclear wastes which is dumped into soil.

Describe the causes of Global Warming and evaluate its impact on life.
Global warming is the increase in normal atmospheric temperature.
Causes:
  • Increase in greens house gases.
  • Cutting of forests and less plantation
  • Burning of fossil fuels.
  • Use of Chlorofloro Carbons (CFCs)
Impacts:

  • The average temperature of earth is increasing continuously.
  • Glaciers are melting rapidly increasing the levels of seas.
  • More evaporation will result in more rains and floods.
  • In some areas, there will be no rain and no cultivation.
  • Some diseases will spread.

8th Class Geography Notes for Islamabad Schools and Colleges


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SHORT QUESTIONS


Write a short note on GPS.
·        It is a location system based on constellation of 24 satellites around earth at a height of 11000 Km.
·        It is widely used by the civilians and defence people to locate exact location of the objects.

What modern techniques are currently in use by the geographers?
·        Remote sensing.
·        Geographical Information System (GIS).
·        Aerial Photographs.
·        Satellites and their images.
·        Geographical Positioning System.
·        Computers.

Explain the usefulness of computers in geography.
·        Computers can generate multiple overlays that provide important clues about correlative factors affecting the environment.
·        Land use patterns, atmospheric patterns, population demerits, rapid development of spatial techniques are the things and studies that is done by the computers.

Write note on computer based models in geography.
·        Computers can generate multiple overlays that provide important clues about correlative factors affecting the environment.
·        Land use patterns, atmospheric patterns, population demerits, rapid development of spatial techniques are the things and studies that is done by the computers.

Name the tools used in remote sensing and GPS.
Components of GPS:
i)      Satellite
ii)     Ground Control Station
iii)    GPS receivers or units

Components of Remote Sensing:
i)      Cameras
ii)     Multiple scanners
iii)    Hyper spectral instruments


LONG QUESTION

Define Remote Sensing and elaborate how it works?
Remote sensing is sensing something from distance without physically touching it.
How it works:
·        It involves the detection of different electromagnetic radiations, which are being reflected and emitted or discharged from any understudy object on the Earth's surface.
·        This is followed by processing, analyzing and applying of information.

What is GIS? Explains the components of GIS in detail.
·        It is a tool that allows geographers and scientists from other disciplines to visualize data in several different ways in order to see patterns and relationship in a given area or subject.
·        These patterns generally appear on maps.
·        Geography means real-world (earth) where we live.
·        Information is facts, figures, statistics, data and information system means computer technology and its support infrastructure.
Components of GPS:
i)      Satellite
ii)     Ground Control Station
iii)    GPS receivers or units

Aerial photographs are an important tool of geographers. Explain.
·        A photograph taken from an aeroplane using a camera is termed as an aerial photograph.
·        Geographers take a lot of help from these photographs while studying the function, composition, operation, properties etc. of different objects.


8th Class Geography Notes for Islamabad Schools and Colleges

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