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Download 9th Class Physics Notes (Unit # 1) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad

Download 9th Class Physics Notes (Unit # 1) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad

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Download 9th Class Physics Notes (Unit # 1) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad

SHORT QUESTIONS

[Important] What is difference between base quantities and derived quantities? Give three examples in each case.
  • Base quantities are the quantities on the basis of which other quantities are expressed. There are 7 physical quantities which form the foundation for other physical quantities. These are called base quantities. For example Length, Mass, Electric Current, Temperature, Intensity of Light and Amount of Substance.
  • The quantities that are expressed in terms of base quantities are called derived quantities. For example Area, Volume, Speed, Force, Work, Energy, Power, Electric Charge etc.

Pick out the base units from joule, Newton, kilogram, hertz, mole, ampere, meter, Kelvin, coulomb and watt.
Kilogram, mole, ampere, meter, Kelvin are the base units.

Find the base quantities involved in each of the following derived quantities.
Speed:
Unit of Speed is ms-1. So meter and second are base quantities involved in speed.
Volume:
Volume = Length x Width x Height
Volume = m x m x m = m3
So meter is the base quantity involved in Volume.
Force:
F = ma
Unit of mass is kilogram and unit acceleration is ms-2.
So kilogram, meter and second are base quantities involved.
Work:
W = F x S = ma x S
Unit of mass is kilogram and unit acceleration is ms-2 and unit of displacement is meter. So kilogram, meter and second are base quantities are involved.

Suppose your age in seconds.
Suppose my age is 15 years.
Years into Days  =      15 x 365            =      5475
Days into Hours  =      5475 x 24           =      131400
Hours into Min    =      131400 x 60       =      7884000
Min into Sec       =      7884000 x 60      =      473040000 seconds

[Important] What role SI units have played in the development of science?
i)            SI system is in use all over the world.
ii)           Manipulation in this system is quite easy. i.e. the multiple and sub multiple of different units are obtained simple by multiplying or dividing with ten or powers of ten.
[Important] What is meant by vernier constant OR Least Count?
The difference between one small division on main scale division and one vernier scale division is 0.1 mm. It is called least count (LC) of the vernier calipers.

[Very Important] What do you understand by the zero error of a measuring instrument?
It is a defect in a measuring device (Vernier Calipers & Screw Gauge) and zero error is caused by an incorrect position of the zero point. For example if zeros of main scale and vernier scale are not in front of each other than zero error will be present.

[Very Important] Why is the use of zero error necessary in a measuring instrument?
As long as you check for zero error, you can then use it to correct your readings. Zero errors are of two types:

  • Positive Zero Error occurs when zero of vernier scale is on the right side of zero of main scale.
  • Negative Zero Error occurs when zero of vernier scale is on the left side of zero of main scale.

What is a stop watch?
A stop watch is used to measure the time interval of an event.

Why do we need to measure extremely small interval of times?
We need extremely small interval of time “delta t”(∆t) as the smaller is the time interval better resolution of measurement is possible.

[Very Important] Define significant figures?
All the accurately known digits and the first doubtful digit in an expression are called significant figures. It reflects the precision of a measured value of a physical quantity.
Accuracy in measuring a physical quantity depends upon various factors: -
i)            The quality of the measuring instrument
ii)           The skill of the observer
iii)         The number of observations made

[Important] On which factors accuracy of measuring a physical quantity depends?
i)            The quality of the measuring instrument
ii)           The skill of the observer
iii)         The number of observations made

[Important] How is precision related to the significant figures in a measured quantity?
The greater the number of significant figures, the greater the precision. Each significant figures increases the precision by a factor of ten.


Define Science.
The knowledge gained through observations and experimentations is called science.

Describe the division of science into two main streams?
Physical Sciences:
They deal with the study of non-living things.
Biological Sciences:
They deal with living things.

[Important] Define the following branches of Physics
Mechanics:
It is the study of motion of objects, its causes and effects.
Heat:
It deals with the nature of heat, modes of transfer and effects of heat.
Sound:
It deals with the physical aspects of sound waves, their production, properties and applications.
Light (Optics):
It is the study of physical aspects of light, its properties, working and use of optical instruments.
Electricity and Magnetism:
It is the study of the charges at rest and in motion, their effects and their relationship with magnetism.
Atomic Physics:
It is the study of the structure and properties of atoms.
Nuclear Physics:
It deals with the properties and behavior of nuclei and the particles within the nuclei.
Plasma Physics:
It is the study of production, properties of the ionic state of matter – the fourth state of matter.
Geophysics:
It is the study of the internal structure of the earth.

[Very Important] Describe the Lord Kelvin statement.
When you can measure what you are speaking about the express it in numbers, you know something about it. When you cannot measure what you are speaking about or you cannot express it in numbers, your knowledge is of a meager and of unsatisfactory kind.

[Very Important] What is Andromeda?
Andromeda is one of the billions of galaxies of known universe.

List harmful effects of the scientific inventions on nature?
The scientific inventions have also caused harms and destruction of serious nature. One of which is the environmental pollution and the other is the deadly weapons.

[Very Important] Define Unit.
Once a standard is set for a quantity then it can be expressed in terms of that standard quantity. This standard quantity is called the unit.

[Very Important] List 7 units of System International (SI) along with their symbols and physical quantities.
Qty Name                     Qty Symbol         Unit Name                    Unit Symbol
Length                       l                       metre                                m
Mass                         m                      kilogram                    kg
Time                         t                       second                       s
Electric Current           I                       ampere                      A
Intensity of light         L                       candela                      cd
Temperature               T                      Kelvin                        K
Amount of Substance   n                      mole                         mol

[Very Important] What are main advantage of using SI system?
i)            SI system is in use all over the world.
ii)           Manipulation in this system is quite easy.

[Very Important] Define prefixes.
Prefixes are the words or letters added before SI units such as kilo, mega, giga and milli etc. Prefixes are useful to express very large or small quantities. Double prefixes are not used. For example no prefix is used with kilogram since it already contains the prefix “kilo”.

[Very Important] What is hubble space telescope?
It orbits around the earth. It provides information about stars.

What is a meter rule? What is its least count?
It is an instrument used to measure the length. Its least count is 1 mm or 0.1cm.

What is a measuring tap? What is its least count?
It is an instrument used to measure the length. Its least count is 1 mm or 0.1cm.

What is difference between mechanical and digital vernier caliper?
Digital vernier caliper has greater precision.

What is beam balance?
It is an ancient (older) instrument to measure the mass of an object.

What is physical balance?
It is an instrument to measure the mass of an object.

What is measuring cylinder?
It is an instrument to measure the volume of a liquid.

LONG QUESTIONS

[Very Important] Write a detailed note on vernier calipers?
Vernier calipers is an instrument which is used to measure the length correctly upto 1/10th of a millimeter. So the least count of vernier calipers is 0.1mm.

Structure: -
It consists of two parts: -

·        One part is called main scale. Longer lines represent centimeter and small lines represents millimeters. On its left there is a jaw A.
·        Second part consists of a vernier scale, which contain a jaw B. This jaw is moveable on main scale. The length of vernier scale is 9mm which is divided into 10 equal parts.
(*** Draw figure from book)
Function: -
·        Note the least count of vernier.
·        Close the jaws A and B. the zeros of main scale and vernier scale should be exactly in front of each other.
·        Fix the sphere between two jaws and note the main scale reading. (The point where the 0 of vernier scale coinciding with main scale division.)
·        Now note the division of vernier scale, which exactly in front of the any main scale division. Let the division is 8.
·        Now multiply 8 with least count 0.01cm and add it to main scale reading.
·        Add or subtract the zero error which was faced.
·        This is the diameter of sphere.

Write a detailed note on screw gauge?
It is an instrument which is used measure the length or diameter correctly upto 1/100th part of millimeter.

Structure: -
·        It consists of a U shaped metal frame fitted with the stud A at one end and an empty cylinder B at the other end.
·        A scale in millimeter is engraved over it parallel to its axis along a straight line.
·        The cylinder has threads inside and act as a nut.
·        There is bolt C inside this nut which moves forward or backward on rotating cylinder B.
(*** Draw figure from book)

Function: -
·        Note the pitch and least count of the screw gauge.
·        Zero of circular scale should be in front of horizontal line.
·        Place the sphere between stud A and bolt C.
·        Note main scale reading.
·        Now find the circular scale division which in exactly in front of horizontal line. Let it is 25.
·        Now multiply 25 by least count and add the product in main scale reading.
·        Add or subtract the zero error.
·        This is the diameter of sphere.

How many types of errors. Describe them?
Personal Errors: -
·        These errors arise due to wrong way of taking reading e.g. eye is not in front to the scale.
·        These errors can be reduced by experience.
Random Errors: -
·        If different measurements are obtained.
·        Then on repeating the observation readings can differ from the first one. This type of errors is called random errors.
·        These errors can be reduced by taking the mean of all the measurement.
Systematic Errors: -
·        These errors are caused due to zero error or wrongly used instruments.
·        To reduce these errors measuring instruments should be compared with standard instrument.


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Download Class Notes: Download 9th Class Physics Notes (Unit # 1) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad
Download 9th Class Physics Notes (Unit # 1) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad
Download 9th Class Physics Notes (Unit # 1) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad
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