Download 10th Class Chemistry Notes (Unit # 10) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad

Download 10th Class Chemistry Notes (Unit # 10) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad.

Very Easy, Updated & Comprehensive Notes for all types of students i.e. Average / Extra Ordinary
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Download 10th Class Chemistry Notes for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad

SHORT QUESTION
>> Question: What is Self Ionization of Water? Write the equation for self ionization of water?
The reaction in which two water molecules produce ions is called as the self ionization or auto ionization of water.  Simple ionization of water can be written as:
H2O <----------------> H+ + OH-

A water molecule that loses a proton becomes a negatively charged hydroxide ion (OH-). The other water molecule which gains the proton becomes positively charged hydronium ion (H3O+). This can be written as:
2H2O <----------------> H3O+ + OH-

>> Question: Define and give examples of Arrhenius acids.
An acid is a substance that ionizes in water to produce H+ ions. For example:

HCl            <----------------> H+ + Cl-
                        H2O
HNO3         <----------------> H+ + NO3-1

>> Question: Why H+ ion acts as a Lewis acid?
A Lewis acid is a lone pair acceptor, the H+ ion has no electrons, so can easily accept a lone pair from another atom. That is why H+ ion acts as a Lewis acid.

>> Question: Why NH3 acts as Bronsted-Lowry base?.
Water is proton donor and ammonia is proton accepter. Therefore water acts as an acid and ammonia as a base.

>> Question: Why BF3 acts as Lewis acid?
Boron in BF3 has incomplete octet. It has six electrons. So it needs an electron pair to complete its octet. Hence BF3 is an electron pair accepter or Lewis acid.

>> Question: Ammonium hydroxide and nitric acid react and product ammonium nitrate and water. Write balanced chemical equation for this neutralization reaction.
NH4OH + HNO3 --------------------> NH4NO3 + H2O

>> Question: Write balanced chemical equations for the following neutralization reactions.

Sulphuric acid + Magnesium hydroxide -------> Magnesium sulphate + water
H2SO4 + Mg(OH)2 --------------------> MgSO4 + 2H2O
Sulphuric acid + Sodium hydroxide -------> Sodium sulphate + water
H2SO4 + 2NaOH --------------------> Na2SO4 + 2H2O
Hydrochloric acid + Calcium Hydroxide -------> Calcium Chloride + water
2HCl + Ca(OH)2 --------------------> CaCl2 + 2H2O
>> Question: Identify Bronsted-Lowry acids or bases in the following reactions.
HNO3 +  H2O ---------------> H3O+ + NO3-
  • Since HNO3 is converted to NO3- by donating proton therefore HNO3 is an acid.
  • Since H2O accepts the proton that HNO3 donates and forms H3O+, water is a base.
NH3 + HNO3 ---------------> NH4NO3
  • Since HNO3 is converted to NO3- by donating proton therefore HNO3 is an acid.
  • Since NH3 accepts the proton and forms NH4+ so it is a base.
>> Question: Identify Lewis acid and Lewis base in the following reactions.
F- +  BF3 ---------------> [BF4]-
  • F- has a lone pair on F-atom. So it is electron pair donor. F- is a Lewis base.
  • Boron in BF3 has incomplete octet. It has six electrons, so it needs an electron pair to complete its octet. Hence BF3 is an electron pair accepter or Lewis acid.
H+ +  NH3 ---------------> [NH4]-
  • A Lewis acid is a lone pair acceptor, the H+ ion has no electrons, so can easily accept a lone pair from another atom. Therefore H+ ion acts as a Lewis acid.
  • NH3 has a lone pair on N-atom. So it is electron pair donor. So, NH3 is a Lewis base.
NH3 + AlCl3 ---------------> [H3N – AlCl3]
  • In AlCl3, Al is deficient of two electrons. Therefore it will be called Lewis acid.
  • NH3 contains a lone pair and can be donated to AlCl3 and hence it will act as Lewis base.
>> Question: Classify the following solutions as acidic, basic or neutral.
i)       A solution that has hydrogen ion concentration 1.0 x 10-3 M.
[H+] = 1.0 x 10-3 M > 1.0 x 10-7 M = So, solution is acidic.
ii)     A solution that has hydrogen ion concentration 1.0 x 10-10 M.
[H+] = 1.0 x 10-10 M < 1.0 x 10-7 M = So, solution is basic.
iii)    A solution that has hydroxyl ion concentration 1.0 x 10-3 M.
[H+]          =      ?
Kw            =      [H+][OH-]
1.0 x 10-14   =      [H+]1.0 x 10-3

                        1.0 x 10-14 
[H+]          =      ----------------     =      1.0 x 10-11
                        1.0 x 10-3
[H+] = 1.0 x 10-11 M < 1.0 x 10-7 M = So, solution is basic.
iv)     A solution that has hydroxyl ion concentration 1.0 x 10-10 M.
[H+]          =      ?
Kw            =      [H+][OH-]
1.0 x 10-14   =      [H+]1.0 x 10-10

                        1.0 x 10-14 
[H+]          =      ----------------     =      1.0 x 10-4
                        1.0 x 10-10
[H+] = 1.0 x 10-4 M > 1.0 x 10-7 M = So, solution is acid.
>> Question: Classify following substance as Lewis acid and bases. NH3, F-, H2O, BF3
i)      Since NH3 accepts the proton and forms NH4+ so it is a base.
ii)      F- has a lone pair on F-atom. So it is electron pair donor. F- is a Lewis base.
iii)     Since H2O donate a proton therefore H2O is an acid.
iv)     Boron in BF3 has incomplete octet. It has six electrons. So it needs an electron pair to complete its octet. Hence BF3 is an electron pair accepter or Lewis acid.

>> Question: Give the Bronsted-Lowry definition of an acid.
In 1923 J.N Bronsted and T.M Lowery independently proposed another theory to overcome the shortcomings of Arrhenius theory. According to Bronsted-Lowry theory an acid is a proton donor.
For example:

>> Question: Give the Bronsted-Lowry definition of a base. Write an equation that illustrates the definition.
According to Bronsted-Lowry theory a base is a proton accepter.

>> Question: Identify Bronsted acids and Bronsted bases in the following

CH3COOH + H2O <------------------> CH3COO- + H3O+
Because CH3COOH is converted to CH3COO- by donating proton therefore CH3COOH is an acid.
CHO3- + H2O <------------------> CO3-2 + H3O+
The HCO3- loses an H+ ion, so it is the Bronsted-Lowry acid. The H2O gains the H+ ion, so it is the Bronsted-Lowry base.
NH3 + H2O <------------------> NH4+ + OH-
H2O is converted to OH- by donating a proton, so H2O is an acid. Because NH3 accepts the proton and forms NH4+ so it is a base.
HCl + HCO3- <------------------> H2CO3 + Cl-
The HCL loses an H+ ion, so it is the Bronsted-Lowry acid. The HCO3- gains the H+ ion, so it is the Bronsted-Lowry base.
HS- + H2O <------------------> S-2 + H3O+
The HS- loses an H+ ion, so it is the Bronsted-Lowry acid. The H2O gains the H+ ion, so it is the Bronsted –Lowry base.
H2S + NH3 <------------------> NH4+ + HS-
H2S is donating a proton, so H2S is an acid. Because NH3 accepts the proton and forms NH4+ so it is a base.

>> Question: Identify the Lewis acids and the Lewis bases in the following reactions.

Ag+ + 2CN- ---------------> Ag(CN2)
Cations Ag+ is Lewis acid since it is able to accept electrons. Anion CN- is Lewis base since it is able to donate electrons.

B(OH)3 + OH- ---------------> B(OH)4-
B(OH)3 is Lewis acid since it is able to accept electrons. Anion OH- is Lewis base since it is able to donate electrons.

CU+2 + 4NH3 ---------------> [Cu(NH3)4]+2
Cations Cu+2 is Lewis acid since it is able to accept electrons. NH3 has a lone pair on N-atom. So it is electron pair donor. NH3 is Lewis base since it is able to accept

OH- + Al(OH)3 ---------------> Al(OH)4-
Al(OH)3 is Lewis acid since it is able to accept electrons. Anion OH- is Lewis base since it is able to donate electrons.

>> Question: Identify Lewis acids and bases from the following
AlCl3
AlCl3 is Lewis acid since it is able to accept electrons.
Ag+
Ag+ is Lewis acid since it is able to accept electrons.
CN-
Anion CN- is Lewis base since it is able to donate electrons.
OH-
Anion OH- is Lewis base since it is able to donate electrons.
FeCl3
FeCl3 is Lewis acid since it is able to accept electrons.
C18H21NO3
Codeine (C18H21NO3) is commonly prescribed as pain killer. It dissolves in water by following reaction.
C18H21NO3 + OH- <-------------> [C18H21HNO3]+ + OH-
It is Lewis acid since it is able to accept electrons.

>> Question: Write equations showing the ionization of following as Arrhenius acids.
a)     HI     b)     HNO2

HI <-------------> H+ + I-
HNO2 <-------------> H+ + NO2-1
>> Question: Write equations showing the ionization of the following as Bronsted-Lowry acids.      
a)     HNO2                   b)      HCN

a)     HNO2 + H2O -----------------> H3O+ + NO-
  • Since HNO2 converted to NO- by donating proton therefore HNO2 is an acid.
  • Since H2O accepts the proton that HNO2 donates and form H3O+, water is base.
b)     HCN + H2O -----------------> H3O+ + CN-
  • Since HCN converted to CN- by donating proton therefore HCN is an acid.
  • Since H2O accepts the proton that HCN donates and form H3O+, water is base.

>> Question: What is true about the relative concentration of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions in each kind of solution? a) acidic b) basic c) neutral
a)     [OH-] < [H+]
b)     [OH-] > [H+]
c)     [OH-] = [H+]

>> Question: Suggest some ways in which you might determine whether a particular water solution contains an acid or a base.
Litmus paper is one way. An indicator solution, like phenolphthalein, would also work. A pH meter, too.

>> Question: Bacteria in our mouth feed on small particles of food stuck to our teeth and change it into acid. Explain how using toothpaste of pH 10 can help to prevent the acid from damaging our teeth?
Toothpaste of pH 10 mildly alkaline. The alkaline pH of toothpaste helps to neutralize the plaque acids which cause tooth decay.

>> Question: What is acid rain?
Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are the primary causes of acid rain. Acid rain occurs when these gases react in the atmosphere with water, oxygen and other chemicals to form various acidic compounds.

>> Question: Give the Arrhenius concept of acids and bases?
In 1887, a Swedish chemist Svante Arrhenius proposed the first successful theory of acids and bases. According to him:
  • An acid is a substance that ionizes in water to produce H+ ions.
  • A base is a substance that ionizes in water to produces OH- ions.

>> Question: What are the applications of pH measurement?
It helps analytical chemists to:
  • Create soil conditions ideal for plant growth
  • Medical diagnose
  • Maintaining the correct acid base balance in swimming pools
  • Electroplating
  • Manufacture of medicine etc
Question: Write uses of some common acids.
Hydrochloric acid (HCl):
Cleaning of metals, bricks and removing scale from boilers.
Nitric Acid (HNO3):
Manufacture of fertilizers, explosives
Sulphuric Acid (H2SO4):
Manufacture of many chemicals, drugs, dyes, paints and explosives
Phosphoric acid (H3PO4):
Manufacture of fertilizers, acidulant for food.

Question: Write uses of some common bases.
Sodium hydroxide (NaOH):
Soap making, drain cleaners
Potassium hydroxide (KOH):
Making liquid soap, shaving cream
Calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2]:
Making mortar, plasters, cement
Magnesium hydroxide [(Mg(OH)2]:
Antacid, laxative

Question: What are the limitations of Arrhenius theory?
Arrhenius theory has its limitations. It applies to aqueous solutions. It does not explain why compounds such as CO2, SO2 etc., are acids. Why substances like NH3, are bases? There is no H in CO2 and OH in NH3.

Dissatisfaction (Defects) of Arrhenius theory:
·                     There are certain substances which do not give H+ ions but still they are acidic in solution e.g. AlCl3
·                     There are substances which do not give OH- ions in H2O but are basic in nature e.g. NH3

Question: What do you mean by amphoteric substances?
Water molecules accepts a proton and in the other water donates a proton. This means water behaves like an acid as well as base. It is amphoteric in nature. Substances that react with both acids and bases are called amphoteric substances.

Question: What are the limitations of Lowry-Bronsted Concept?
Bronsted-Lowry concept is also not so comprehensive because following this concept, certain compounds cannot be considered as acid or bases although the act as acids or bases. For example, sulphur trioxide (SO3) is a base but it cannot accept proton.

Question: List the substances that cannot be explained by Arrhenius theory or the Bronsted-Lowry theory?
Certain substances like SO2, CO2, CaO, BF3 etc. behave as acids or bases although they do not have ability to donate or accept protons. Nature of such substances cannot be explained by Arrhenius theory or the Bronsted-Lowry theory.
Question: Give the Lewis definition of Acid and Base.
IN 1923 G.N. Lewis proposed and acid base theory. This concept is more general than Arrhenius or Bronsted-Lowry theory.
  • A Lewis acid is substance that can accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond.
  • A Lewis base is substance that can donate a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond.

Question: Write the equation for the self ionization of water?
The reaction in which two water molecules produce ions is called self ionization of water. This reaction can be written as a simple ionization of water:

H2O <-----------------------> H+ + OH-

Question: Define pH and pOH
  • pH is defined as negative logarithm of the molar concentration of H+ ions in aqueous solution.
  • pOH is defined as the negative logarithm of the molar concentration of OH- ions in aqueous solution.

Question: What is importance of Kw?
Kw is temperature dependent. In any aqueous solution at 25oC, no matter what does it contain the product of H+ ion concentration and OH- ion concentration is always equal to 1.0 x 10-14. This means that if H+ increases, the OH- must decrease so that the product of two is still 1.0x10-14.

Question: What do you mean by pH scale?
Chemists use a number scale from 0 to 14 to describe the concentration of H+ ions in a solution. It is known as pH scale.
  • A pH of 7 indicates a neutral solution.
  • Acids have pH less than 7.
  • Bases have pH greater than 7.

Question: At what pH phenolphthalein changes its color?
Phenolphthalein works in a pH range of 8.2 to 10.0. The color change is from colorless to red/fuchsia.

Question: At what pH bromothymol blue changes color from yellow to blue?
Bromothymol blue is a pH indicator. This indicator is yellow when pH is below 6.0. It is blue when the pH of the solution is above 7.6.

Question: What are salts?
An acid contains replaceable hydrogen atoms. When these are completely or partially replaced by metal atoms, a compound called salt is formed. Salts are ionic compounds. First part of name indicate the metal ion while second part indicates the name of negative part of acid. For example Sodium chloride.
Question: What is Etching?
Etching is an art that uses acid to crave patterns into metal, glass and other materials. For this a piece of metal or glass is covered with wax, and then a design is etched on to the plate through the wax. The plate is then dipped into a tank of acid. The acid eats away at the exposed portion, which leaves behind textured mark. The plate is then taken out of the acid and cleaned. Ink can also be applied on etching to create colorful design.

Question: Briefly explain neutralization.
Reaction between an acid and a base is called neutralization reaction.
Acid + Base --------------> Salt + Water
HCl + NaOH --------------> NaCl + H2O

Neutralization is the reaction between H+ ions of an acid and OH- ions of a base.
H+ + OH- --------------> H2O

Question: Define Basic Salt?
A salt containing replaceable OH group or formed by the partial neutralization of a polyhydroxy base is called basic salt.

Question: Differentiate between normal salt and acid salt?
A salt containing a replaceable H-atom or formed by partial neutralization of an acid is called acid salt whereas a salt which is formed by the complete neutralization of an acid is called a normal salt.


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Download Class Notes: Download 10th Class Chemistry Notes (Unit # 10) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad
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