Download 10th Class Chemistry Notes (Unit # 11) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad

Download 10th Class Chemistry Notes (Unit # 11) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad.

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Download 10th Class Chemistry Notes for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad
>> Question: What is catenation?
The self linking ability of carbon atoms is called catenation. This ability of carbon results in enormous range of compounds of carbon.

>> Question: Define isomerism.
Compounds having same molecular formula but different structural formula is called isomers and this process is called isomerism.

>> Question: Give three examples of alkyle groups.
i)      Methyle     =      CH3
ii)      Ethyle        =      CH3CH2
iii)     Propyle      =      CH3 – CH2 – CH2

>> Question: Define Functional Group.
An atom or groups of atoms that give a family of organic compounds its characteristics (chemical and physical properties) is called a functional group. For example Carboxyl group, Carbonyl group etc.

>> Question: Write difference between an alkane and an alkyle radical?
  • Alkane is a hydrocarbon containing only single bonds and have general formula CnH2n+2.
  • Alkyle radical is a group of atoms obtained by removing one hydrogen atom from an alkane. Alkyle radicals are represented by symbol R. Their general formula is CnH2n+1.

>> Question: What do you mean by term destructive distillation?
When coal is heated in the absence of air at high temperature, it is converted into coal gas, coal tar and coke. This process is called destructive distillation.

>> Question: What is the name of alkane having seven carbon atoms in the chain?
Heptain (C7H16)

>> Question: What is the name of the alkyle group obtained by removing an end hydrogen atom from (i) propane (ii) ethane?
Propane = propyl
Ethane = Ethyl

>> Question: Identify following as an alcohol, aldehyde or ketone.
i)      HCHO, which is used to manufacture polymers, such as urotropine which is used to treat urinary tract infection. (Aldehyde because of CHO- group)
ii)      CH3COCH3, which is used in nail polish remover.(Ketone because of CO- group)
iii)     CH3CH2OH, which is used in the preparation of many organic substances such as plastics, cosmetics, tinctures etc. (Alcohol because of OH group)
>> Question: Define Organic Chemistry?
The study of carbon containing compounds and their properties is called organic chemistry.

>> Question: Define organic compounds.
Hydrocarbons and their derivatives are called organic compounds. In these compounds carbon is essential and found in combination with H, O, N, S, P and halogens.

>> Question: Define structural formula?
It is a formula that describes the arrangements of atoms in molecules.

>> Question: Describe condensed forumula?
A condensed formula is a structural formula that uses established abbreviation for various groups of chain.

>> Question: Give names of few alkanes and their formulas.
Butane (C4H10), Pentane (C5H12), Hexane (C6H14), Heptane (C7H16), Octane (C8H18), Nonane (C9H20), Decane (C10H22)

>> Question: What are hydrocarbons. Classify them.
Hydrocarbons are the binary compounds of carbon and hydrogen only. They are classified as:
Saturated Hydrocarbons:
Hydrocarbons whone carbon – carbon bonds are all single bonds are called saturated. These are called alkanes. Their general formula is CnH2n+2. For example  Methane etc. Their names end with –ane.
Unsaturated Hydrocarbons:
These are further divided into two types:
  • Alkenes: Unsaturated hydrocarbons containing at least one carbon-carbon double bond are called alkenes. They have general formula CnH2n. For example Ethane etc. Their names end with –ene.
  • Alkynes: Unsaturated hydrocarbons that have at least one carbon-carbon triple bond are called alkynes. They have general formula CnH2n-2. For example Ethyne. Their names end with –yne.

>> Question: Classify organic compounds.
i)             Open chain compounds or Alicyclic compounds
ii)           Closed chain or Cyclic compounds
a.   Homocyclic compounds
b.   Heterocyclic compounds.

>> Question: What are haloalkanes?
Haloalkanes are characterized by the presence of the halogen atom. The haloalkane is compound in which one hydrogen atom of an alkane is substituted by one halogen atom.
>> Question: List the function groups containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen?
i)      Alcohols             ii)      Phenols              iii)     Ethers               
iv)     Aldehydes          v)     Ketones             vi)     Carboxylic Acids
vii)    Esters

>> Question: What do you understand by the functional group of alcohols?
Alcohols are characterized by the presence of hydroxyl group (-OH) attached to hydrocarbon chain. For example Methanol (Mehthyle alcohol CH3 – OH), Ethanol (Ethyl alcohol CH3 – CH2 – OH). Their general formula is R – OH.

>> Question: What do you understand by the functional group of phenols?
When an –OH group is attached to a benzene ring, the compound is called a phenol.

>> Question: What do you understand by functional group of ethers?
Organic compounds that have two alkyle groups attached to the same oxygen atom are called ethers. Their general formula is R-O-R’

>> Question: Write about the functional group of aldehydes and ketones?
·         An aldehyde has at least one hydrogen atom or two hydrogen atoms attached to the carbonyle carbon atom.
·         A ketone has two hydrocarbon groups (alkyl) bonded to the carbonyl carbon atom.


>> Question: List some general properties of organic compounds.
Most of them come from living things or from the things that were once living.
Covalent nature:
They are generally covalent in nature. They may have polar and non-polar bonds.
Carbon is main part of organic compounds. Hydrogen is also frequently present.
Melting and Boiling points:
Generally organic compounds are volatile, so they have low melting and boiling points.
They are non-polar in nature, therefore most of them are soluble in organic solvents like ether, benzene etc. Polar organic compounds are soluble in alcohols such as methyl alcohol.
Most of the organic compounds are similar in nature which made their study easy.
Reaction rates:
Organic compounds are generally less stable than inorganic compounds. Due to covalent bonding in them, their reaction rates are often slow.

>> Question: Write down the uses of organic compounds.
  • Mostly natural gas and petroleum are used as fuels.
  • Propane and butane which are gases obtained from natural gas are widely available as liquids in fuel cylinders (LPG).
  • Ethylene is the major starting material for the manufacture of organic chemicals and products such as polyethylene (plastic), ethyl alcohol, acetic acid and ethylene glycol (called antifreeze).
  • Acetylene is widely used in the oxy-acetylene welding and cutting metals.
  • Acetylene is also used in the preparation of polymers like PVC, synthetic rubber, nylon etc.
  • Acetylene is also used for artificial ripening of fruits.
  • Compounds of phenol help to ensure antiseptic conditions in hospital operating rooms.
  • Methanol is used as a solvent for fats, oils, paints and varnishes.
  • Many organic compounds are used in the manufacture of drugs, dyes, cosmetics, detergents and soaps, nylon, emulsions and paints etc.




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Download Class Notes: Download 10th Class Chemistry Notes (Unit # 11) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad
Download 10th Class Chemistry Notes (Unit # 11) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad
Download 10th Class Chemistry Notes (Unit # 11) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad
Download Class Notes
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