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Download 10th Class Chemistry Notes (Unit # 12) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad

Download 10th Class Chemistry Notes (Unit # 12) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad.

Very Easy, Updated & Comprehensive Notes for all types of students i.e. Average / Extra Ordinary

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Download 10th Class Chemistry Notes (Unit # 12) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad

SHORT QUESTION

>> Question: Give three examples of unsaturated hydrocarbons?
Ethene:
Pentene
Butyne
Description: ethylene
Description: ANd9GcSvoGkFwVgOFyxTopLl2z69JJEKX2f3_yyX84I7pb3jAb3O-2HJ
Description: c4h6

>> Question: Draw electron dot and cross structure for ethane.
Description: ethane
>> Question: Draw structural formula of an alkane, an alkene and an alkyne containing five carbon atoms.
Pentane:
Pentene
Pentyne
Description: N-Pentan
Description: ANd9GcSvoGkFwVgOFyxTopLl2z69JJEKX2f3_yyX84I7pb3jAb3O-2HJ
Description: Pentyne_structure

>> Question: How can you differentiate between ethane from ethene?
·         Add a small amount of bromine water to each jar.
·         Shake the jar containing ethane will de-color the bromine water.
·         The jar containing the ethane the bromine water will remain brown.
·         This is because the Br2 will add on across the double bond of the unsaturated ethane to produce dibromoethane.
·         The Br2 is removed from the water which becomes clear.
·         In the case of ethane this is already saturated, so no reaction occurs – Bromine water remains brown.

>> Question: What do you mean by dehydration reaction? Give one example
Dehydration means loss of water.
Example:
Alcohols dehydrate when their vapour are passed over heated alumina.
Description: Dehydration_of_ethanol

>> Question: How can you convert?

Ethene into ethane:
                                     Ni
CH2 = CH2 + H2   ----------------------> CH2 – CH2
                              200 – 300 oC

Methane into Carbon tetrachloride:

                        diffused
CH4 + Cl2            ---------------------->            CH3Cl + HCl
                        Sunlight

                        diffused
CH3Cl + Cl2         ---------------------->            CH2Cl2 + HCl
                        Sunlight

                        diffused
CH2Cl + Cl2         ---------------------->            CHCl3 + HCl
                        Sunlight

                        diffused
CHCl + Cl2          ---------------------->            CCl4 + HCl
                        Sunlight

Ethene into glycol:

3CH2 = CH2 + 2KMnO4 + 4H2O --------------------> 3CH2 --- CH2   + 2MnO2 + 2KOH
                                                                        |           |
                                                                       OH        OH
                                                                   (Ethylene Glycol)

Ethyl Chloride into ethane:

                                 Zn / HCl
CH3 --- CH2 + 2[H] --------------------> CH3 --- CH3 + HCl
            |
           Cl

Ethyl bromide into ethene:

                                 Alcohol
CH3 --- CH2 + KOH --------------------> CH2 = CH2 + KBr + H2O
            |
           Br
>> Question: Write a chemical equation to show the preparation of an alkane from an alkene and an alkyne.
                                Ni
CH = CH + H2 ---------------------->        CH2 = CH2
                           200-300oC
                                Ni
CH2 = CH2 + H2 ---------------------->       CH3 --- CH3
                           200-300oC
>> Question: Write a chemical equation to show the preparation of ethane from dehydration of an alcohol and dehydrohalogenation of alkyl halides.
By Dehydration of Alcohols:
        H     H                                                       H      H
        |      |                          Al2O3                                   |         |
H --- C --- C --- H        ---------------------->            C   =   C    +      H --- OH   
        |      |                       340-450oC                   |         |
        H    OH                                                      H      H
        Ethanol                                                      Ethene
By dehydrohalogenation of alkyl halides:
                                 Alcohol
CH3 --- CH2 + KOH --------------------> CH2 = CH2 + KCl + H2O
            |
           Br
>> Question: Write a chemical equation to show the preparation of ethyne from dehalogenation of 1, 2 – dihalide and a tetrahalide.
By dehydrohalogenations of 1,2 – dihalide:
                                 Alcohol
CH2 --- CH2 + KOH --------------------> CH = CH2 + KCl + H2O
 |          |                                           |      
Cl         Cl                                          Cl
1,2 Dichloroethane                             Vinylchloride
(Vicinal dihalide)
                                 Alcohol
CH --- CH2 + KOH --------------------> CH  = CH + KCl + H2O
 |         
Cl
By Dehalogenation of Tetrahalides:
        Cl     Cl                                                      H      H
        |      |                          heat                                            |         |
H --- C --- C --- Zn      ---------------------->            HC =  CH   +      ZnCl2
        |      |                                                        |         |
        Cl    Cl                                                       Cl      Cl
        1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane                            1,2-Cichloroethene

HC = CH    +      Zn     --------------->    CH = CH + ZnCl2
|       |                                               Ethyne
Cl      Cl
>> Question: Write chemical equation showing reactions of KMnO4 with ethene and ethyne.
Reaction with Ethene:

3CH2 = CH2 + 2KMnO4 + 4 H2O --------------------> 3CH2 --- CH2 + 2MnO2 + 2KOH
                                                                   |            |
                                                                        OH            OH
                                                                       
Ethylene Glycol
Reaction with Ethyne:

                                                                OH    OH
                                                                           |         |
CH = CH + 2 KMnO4 + 2H2O --------->     H---C ---   C --- H + 2MnO2 + 2KOH
                                                        |         |
                                                                OH    OH

>> Question: List some industrial uses of ethene and ethyne.
Uses of Ethene:
  • Ethene is used to accelerate the ripening of fruits and is most commonly used on bananas and also on citrus fruit.
  • The other use of ethene is in the manufacture of plastics, such as packing films, wire coatings, and squeeze bottles.

Uses of Ethyne:
  • In oxy-acetylene torch for welding and cutting metals.
  • For ripening of fruits.
  • For the manufacture of polyvinyl acetate (PVA), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyvinyl ethers and rubbers.

>> Question: Explain why a systematic method of naming chemical compounds is necessary.
An international body, the International Union of Pure and Applied chemistry (IUPAC) constantly reviews the rules for naming organic compounds. IUPAC system of naming organic compounds is based on the following principle.

>> Question: Write chemical equations for the preparation of propene from:
                                Conc. H2SO4
CH3 – CH2 – CH2 – OH ---------------------> CH3–CH = CH2 + H2O
                                170oC

                                Ni
CH3 – C = CH + 2H2     ----------------------> CH3 – CH = CH2
                                200 – 300 o C

>> Question: What are hydrocarbons?
Binary compounds of hydrogen and carbon are called hydrocarbon.
>> Question: Why are some fuels called as fossil fuels?
Some fuels are called fossil fuels because, like fossils they were formed long time ago. Oil is an example of fossil fuel.
>> Question: Write the causes of global warming?
Carbon dioxide and other gases produce a greenhouse effect. About 25 billion tons of carbon dioxide is  released into the atmosphere each year, 22 billion tons of it comes from the brining of fossil fuels. About 15 billion tons per year is removed by the plants. Thus 10 billion tons of carbon dioxide remains in the air. This is causing global warming.
>> Question: Write down the importance of alkene polymers.
  • Alkenes are starting materials for the synthesis of many valuable materials.
  • Our clothes, carpets, curtains, towels are polymers made from ethene and ethyne.
  • Hydrocarbons are also used as raw materials for the synthesis of synthetic rubber, plastic, films, adhesives, drugs and dyes.
  • In the field of medicine, body replacement parts are made from polymers.
  • We can also expect to have artificial lungs and artificial hearts.
>> Question: Is there anything that can replace petroleum as raw material for making plastics and other polymers.
Vats of blue green algae could one day replace oil wells in producing raw materials for chemical industry.
>> Question: Alkynes add two molecules of hydrogen. Why?
Alkynes add two molecules of hydrogen to convert alkynes into alkanes.
>> Question: List some properties of alkanes?
  • Alkane molecules are essentially non-polar.
  • Alkanes are less dense than water and insoluble in it.
  • Chemically alkanes are unreactive towards most ionic compounds.
  • Higher alkanes are solids which are also colorless and odorless.
>> Question: What happens when methane is treated with chlorine in the presence of bright sun light?
In direct sunlight, reaction of methane and chlorine is explosive and forms carbon and HCl.
CH4 + 2Cl2 ------------------> C + 4HCl
>> Question: Describe the trends in reactivity of halogen with alkances?
F2 > Cl2 > Br2 > I2
>> Question: List uses of methane?
It is used as domestic fuel (sui gas)
It is used as a fuel for automobiles (CNG)
It is used to manufacture urea fertilizers.

>> Question: What is combustion of methane?
A reaction of a substance with oxygen or air that causes the rapid release of heat and the appearance of a flame is called combustion. Complete combustion produces carbon dioxide, water and heat.
>> Question: List the properties of alkenes?
  • Alkenes are unsaturated hydrocarbons.
  • First three members i.e. ethene, propene and butane are gases while C5-C15 members are liquids and the higher members are solid.
  • They are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents such as alcohol etc.

>> Question: What is use of Ethylene glycol?
It is used as an anti-freeze.

>> Question: What are oxy-acetylene torches?
Acetylene is used in oxy-acetylene torches for cutting and welding metals. Such torches can produce temperature as high as 3000oC.

>> Question: List the properties of alkynes?
  • Alkynes are unsaturated hydrocarbons.
  • They are non-polar and dissolve readily in organic solvents.
  • Ethyne has garlic like odour.
  • One molecule adds across the double bond in an addition reaction.
  • Alkynes also undergo addition reactions like alkene.

>> Question: How can one identify the unsaturation in a molecule?
Bromine is a reddish brown liquid and the product is colorless. When bromine water is added to an ethyne, the red-brown color disappears. The decolonization of bromine solution is frequently used as a simple test for the presence of unsaturation.

>> Question: What is combustion reaction?
Natural gas, petroleum and coal are important sources of hydrocarbons. These hydrocarbons are major sources of energy. When they burn in air a highly exothermic reaction occurs. This reaction is called combustion reaction. We use hydrocarbons as fuel to meet energy needs in homes, industries, vehicles and power generation.

>> Question: What are the uses of halogenated hydrocarbons?
Many halogenated hydrocarbons have important commercial uses. Methyl chloride is a gas at room temperature. Dichloromethane, tri-chloromethane and tetra chloromethane are liquids. These three liquids can be used a solvents for grease, oils and other organic substances. Chloroform is used as an anesthetic. Tetra-chloromethane has carcinogenic effects at high concentration.

>> Question: What do you know about Baeyer’s test?
1 % alkaline aqueous solution of KMnO4 is used to detect the presence of an alkene. The reaction is known as Baeyer’s test.

>> Question: What is Vicinal Dihalide?
A vicinal dihalide has two halogen atoms on adjacent carbon atoms.


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Download Class Notes: Download 10th Class Chemistry Notes (Unit # 12) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad
Download 10th Class Chemistry Notes (Unit # 12) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad
Download 10th Class Chemistry Notes (Unit # 12) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad
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