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Download 10th Class Physics Notes (Unit # 12) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad

Download 10th Class Physics Notes (Unit # 12) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad

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Download 10th Class Physics Notes (Unit # 12) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad


What do you understand by the reflection of light? Draw a diagram to illustrate reflection at a plane surface.
When light ray is completely returns back into some medium after falling from a polished surface is called “reflection of light”
Description: 1
Describe the following terms used in reflection.
The perpendicular drawn on the reflecting plane, at point of incidence of ray of light as called “normal”.
Angle of Incidence:
The angle between incident ray and normal is called angle of incidence.
Angle of reflection:
The angle between reflected ray and normal is called angle of reflection.

State laws of reflection. Describe how they can be verified graphically.
1st Law:
It states that angle of incidence is equal to angle of reflection.
<AON = <ONB             =             <i = <r
2nd Law:
It states that incident ray, reflected ray and normal lie in the same plane.

Description: 1

Define refraction of light. Describe the passage of light through parallel sided transparent material.
The bending of light rays coming from one medium and enters into another medium. This property of light is called "refraction" of light.
Consider a slab of glass (parallel sided transparent material) as shown in figure below:
A ray of light IQ travelling from air falls on the surface of a glass block.

Description: unit5

At air-glass interface, the ray of light IQ changes its direction and bends toward the normal and travels along the path OR ray inside the glass block. The rays IQ and OR are called incident and refracted ray respectively.
Angle of incidence:
The angle <i made by incident ray with normal is called angle of incidence.
Angle of refraction:
The angle <r made by refracted ray with normal is called angle of refraction.
The refracted light my leaves the glass it bends away from the normal and travels along the path ME. It is called emergent ray.

State the laws of refraction of light an show how they may be verified using rectangular glass slab and pins.
1st Law:
Lt states that incident ray, normal and refracted rays lie in same plane.
2nd Law:
It states that ratio of sine of angle of incidence to the sine of angle of refraction is
constant (Snell’s law)

What is meant by the term total internal refection?
When a light ray is incident upon the separating surface, coming from denser medium for which angle of reflection in rare medium is greater than 90° then it is called total internal reflection.

State the condition for total internal reflection?
i)    The incident ray should come from denser medium at angle of incidence greater then critical angle.
ii)   The totally reflected ray is received in the same denser medium.

What is critical angle? Derive a relationship between the critical angle and the refractive index of a substance.
Critical Angle:
The angle of incidence in the denser medium for which corresponding angle of refraction is 900 in the rarer medium is called the critical angle. This angle of incidence is denoted by C.
Relationship between Critical Angle and Refractive Index:
Let’s say that the less dense medium is air (n=1). Then the refractive index of the second medium is:

n = sin i /sin r
   = sin 90° / sin c
n =  1 / sin c

n =  1 / sin c     or 1 divided by sin c
c = critical angle for the medium

What are optical fibers? Describe how total internal reflection is used in light propagating through optical fibers.
Optical Fiber is a strand of glass or plastic not much thicker than human hair uses light signals to transfer information from one end to other.
The central part of the optical fiber is made up of glass or plastic having relatively high refractive index called cone through which light travels. The core is surrounded by a coaxial layer of glass (with small index of refraction) or plastic called cladding having low refractive index.
Description: 63
As shown in figure the light entering the optical fiber strikes the cladding with an angle greater than the critical angle of the glass it is totally reflected into the core. In this way light travels many kilometers with small loss of energy.

Define the following terms applied to a lens:
Principal axis:
The line passing through pole and focal point is called principle axis of lone.
Optical centre:
The central symmetric point of a lens is called optical centre.
Focal length:
The distance between focal point and optical centre of lens is called its focal length.

What is meant by the principal focus of a (a) convex lens (b) a concave lens? Illustrate your answer with my diagrams
In concave mirror rays of light parallel to the principal axis after reflection converge to a point F. This point is called Principal Focus.
Description: lnss-ccv-ray01

In convex mirror, rays parallel to the principal axis after reflection appear to come from a point F situated behind the mirror. This point is called Principal Focus.
Description: Ray_1

Describe how light is refracted through convex lens.
Convex lens bends the light towards the principal axis that is towards thickest part of the lens after refraction.

With the help of a ray diagram, how you can show the use of thin converging lens as a magnifying glass.
If object is placed at between optical point and F, the image is formed behind the object, virtual, erect and larger than the object.
Description: unit14

A coin is placed at a focal point of a converging lens. Is an image formed? What is its nature?
If a coin (object) is placed at a focal point of a converging lens its image is not formed because rays become parallel after passing through the lens.

What are the difference between real and virtual images?
Real image is that image which can be formed on a screen but the virtual image cannot formed on a screen.

How does a converging lens form a virtual image of a real object? How does a diverging lens can form a real image of a real object?
In case of converging lens: A virtual image is formed of a real object when it is placed between the focal point and optical centre of the lens.

Define power of a lens and its units.
The power of a lens is the reciprocal of focal length in meters. The SI unit of power is called diopter, represented as D. The power of a lens with (f = 1m) is said to be one diopter.
P = 1/f

Define the passage of light through a glass prism and measure the angle of deviation.

Prism is a transparent and refracted medium made up of optical glass with at least two polished plane faces inclined towards each other from which light is refracted. A triangular prism is shown in figure below:

Description: unit9
According to the law of refraction n = Sin i / Sin r

The incident ray PE makes an angle of incidence <i at point B and is refracted towards the normal N as BF. The refracted ray makes an angle of refraction <r inside the prism and travels to the other end of the prism.

This ray emerges out from the prism at point P making an angle e. Hence the emerging ray FS is not parallel to the incident ray EF but it is deviated by an angle D which is called angle of deviation.

Define the terms resolving power and magnifying power.
Resolving Power:
The resolving power of an instrument is its ability to distinguish between two closely placed objects or point sources. For example we use high resolving power microscope to see tiny organisms and telescope to view distant stars. 
Magnifying Power (Angular Magnification:
The magnifying power is defined as “The angular size θ of the final image produced by the magnified glass divided angular size θ of the final image produced by the magnified glass divided the angular size θ of the object seen without the magnifying glass.

What is light? How non-luminous objects can be seen?
Light is a form of energy that gives the sensation of vision. Light is the electromagnetic radiations. When light from a source falls on a non-luminous object then it is reflected, refracted or absorbed. This light received in the eyes of observer and give sense of observation of object.

What is reflection of light? What are its types?
The bouncing back of light into same medium is called reflection of light. It has two types:-
Regular reflection:
It occurs when light is reflected through smooth surface.
Diffused or Irregular reflection:
It occurs when light is reflected through irregular surface.

Define spherical mirror. What are their types?
The minor made up of a pan of surface of a hallow sphere of glass/plastic is called "spherical mirror”. There are two types of spherical minors.
Concave Spherical mirror:
The spherical mirror having its inner reflecting surface is called concave spherical mirror. Rays parallel to principal axis after reflection pass through the focal point. Both real and virtual images can be formed by ths type of mirror.
Convex Spherical mirror:
The spherical mirror having its outer reflecting surface is called convex spherical mirror. Rays parallel to principal axis after reflection seem to be coming from the focal point. Only virtual and erect images is formed by a convex mirror.

Explain different type of technologies used in case of spherical mirrors.
Center of curvature (C):
The center of the hollow sphere a part of whose surface is used to make spherical mirror is called center of curvature.
Radius of curvature (R):
The radius of hollow sphere, a part of whose surface is used to make a spherical mirror is called “radius of curvature” of the mirror.

The length of straight line which divides the spherical mirror into two equal parts is called diameter or aperture of mirror.
Pole / Vertex:
The central symmetrical point of a spherical mirror is called pole of mirror. It is also called vertex.
Principle axis:
The straight line passing through principle focus and pole of spherical mirror is called its principle axis.
Principle focus:
The point at which parallel incident rays, after reflection from spherical mirror converge (or appear to converge) is called its principle focus.
Focal length:
The distance from "pole" to principle focus of a spherical mirror is called its focal length. For concave mirror it is taken as positive and for convex mirror it is taken as negative.

What is the relationship between focal length and radius of curvature?
The focal length is related to the radius of curvature by f = R/2
What is corpuscular nature of light?
In the early 1700s, there were two ideas about the nature of light. Particle nature and Wave nature. Newton put forward the idea of corpuscular nature of light. According to him light consists of tiny fast moving particles. Maxwell formulated the wave theory of
light. In I802, Thomas Young proved the wave nature of light experimentally. In 1900 Planck suggested that light consists of small packets of energy called photon. Later on idea of photon was confirmed by experiments. Now we know that light dual nature. Light as well as Particle nature.

What is mirror equation and give its sign convention?
Mirror formula is the relation between object distance p, image distance q from the mirror and focal length of the mirror. We can write this:
 1             1     1
---     =      --- + ---
 f              p     q
It is required formula for concave / convex mirror.
Sign Conventions:
  • Focal length f is positive for concave mirror and negative for convex mirror.
  • Object distance p is positive for real object and negative for virtual object.
  • Image distance q is positive for real image and negative for virtual image.

Define magnification of spherical mirrors.
Definition of magnification is that “how many times the size of image formed by spherical mirror is greater than the size of object". Mathematically we write
                                 Size of image                                    hi
Magnification = -----------------------------        =      m      =      ----
                                 Size of object                                    ho
What is total internal reflection of light? What are its conditions?
When angle of incidence becomes larger than the ‘critical angle, no refraction occurs. The entire light is reflected back into same denser medium. This process is called total internal reflection.
  • When light ray is travelling from a glass (denser medium) to air (rare medium). The light my bends away from normal. If the angle of incidence increases then angle of refraction also increases.
  • At some particular angle of incidence at which the ‘angle of refraction becomes 90o is called “critical angle". It is denoted by θc.
  • Light ray should be incident from denser.
  • Angle of incidence (in denser medium must be greater than θc)

What are totally reflecting prism and periscope.
Consider a right-angled prism whose one of the angles is 90o and other angles are 45o each. When a light ray strikes a face of prism perpendicularly, it enters the prism without deviation and strikes the hypotenuse at an angle of 45°. Since the angle of incidence 45° greater than the critical angle of the glass which in 42° , the light is totally reflected by the prism through an angle of 90°
Two such prisms (totally internal reflecting) are used in periscope. The light is totally reflected by an angle of 180o.

What is mirage? Explain.
The mirage is formed by the process of total internal reflection. The rays of light coming from upper layers cooler layer of air (denser) and enter into lower hotter layers of air (rare). Then these lays bend away from normal because hotter layers of air are less dense than cooler layers. When thin process continues in the layer by layer, then light is ultimately suffers total internal refraction and an inverted image of trees or buildings is observed on roads. It is called mirage.

What is Lens? What are its types?
The piece of transparent refracting medium, whose boundary surface has some part of spherical shape is called lens. It has 6 types:
Plano-convex               Double convex           Concave-convex
Plano concave              Double concave          Convexo concave

What are the three rays used for the formation of images in case of lenses?
  • The ray parallel to the principal axis passes through the focal point after refraction by the lens.
  • The ray passing through the optical centre passes straight through the lens and passes un-deviated.
  • The ray passing through the focal point becomes parallel to the principal axis after refraction by the lens.


Write notes on the followings.
Light pipe:
Light pipe is bundle of thousands of optical fibers bounded together. They are used to illuminate the inaccessible places by the doctors and engineers. For example doctors view inside the human body. It can be used to transmit images from one place to another.
An endoscope is a medical instrument used for diagnostic surgical purposes. An endoscope uses two optical fibers tubes through a pipe.
Process of Endoscope:
Due to small size it is inserted through the mouth and thus eliminates the invasive surgery. The light shines on the organ of patient to be diagnosed while entering through one of the fiber tubes of the endoscope. Then light is transmitted back to physician's viewing lens through the other fiber tube by total internal reflection. Flexible endoscope has a tiny camera attached to the end. Doctor can see the view recorded by the camera is displayed on a computer screen.

A medical procedure using any type of endoscope is called endoscopy. For example Gastroscopy, Cystosopy and Bronchoscopy means endoscope is used to diagnose stomach, bladder and throat respectively.

>> Question: Derive the convex lens formula?
Consider the following figure:
Description: scan0014
i)      An object OA, is placed in front of a thin convex lens.
ii)     A ray of light starting from point ‘A’, moving parallel to the principal axis strikes the lens at the point ‘E’.
iii)    After refraction through the lens, it passes through the principal pocus F.
iv)     A second ray AC also starting from ‘A’ passes through the optical centre of the lens and moves straight (un-deviated) and intersects the first refracted ray at the point ‘B’.
v)     Thus ‘B’ is the real image of point ‘A’.
vi)     If this process is repeated for other points of the objects OA then a real image IB of the object OA is obtained.
vii)    Distance of the object from the lens is represented by p and that of image by q.
∆OAC and ∆IBC are similar because angle ACO = angle BCI.  Also one angle in each triangle is 900.

AO            OC
----   =      ----                ----------------------- (i)
BI             CI

Similarly, ∆EFC and ∆BFI are similar.
CE             CF
---     =      ---
BI             FI

EC     =      AO

AO            CF
---     =      ---                 ----------------------- (ii)
BI             FI

Comparing Equation (i) and Equation (ii) we get,
OC            CF
---     =      ---             (As we know CI - CF)
CI             FI

OC            CF
---     =      -------------
CI             CI – CF

Now CI=q, OC=p and CF =f

P                  f
--      =      -------
q              (q – f)

fq     =      p (q - f)

fq     =      pq – pf

Dividing both sides by pqf, we get
1              1              1
---     =      ---     +      ---
f               p              q
What is Accommodation with respect to human eye? Explain.
The variation of focal length of human eye lens is called accommodation. The human eye has different mechanism for focusing the image of an object onto the retina. Its ciliary muscles control the curvature and thus the focal length of the lens and allow the object at various distances to be seen.
  • If the object is far away from the eye the deviation of light through the lens must be less. To do this, the ciliary muscles relax and decrease the curvature of the lens so by increasing the focal length. The rays focus on retina producing a sharp image of the distant objects.
  • If the object is close to the eye, the ciliary muscles increases the curvature of the lens so by shorting the focal length. The divergent rays from the nearer object are thus bent more so as to come to a focus on the retina.

Write a note on human eye. Also describe Near Point & Far Point.
Human eye has a refracting system having a converging lens that forms an image on the retina which is a light sensitive layer at the back of the eye as shown in the following diagram. The lens of the eye is flexible and accommodates objects over a wide range of distance.
Light enters the eye through a transparent membrane called cornea.
Iris is the colored portion of the eye and it controls the amount of light reaching the retina. It has a opening at its center called the pupil. The iris control the size of pupil. In bright light it contracts and in dim light it enlarged.

Near Paint / Least distance of distinct vision:
The near point of the eye is the minimum distance of an object from the eye at which it produces a sharp image on the retina. This distance is also called least distance of distinct vision. Its value for norm al aye is 25 cm.
Far Point:
The far point of the eye is he maximum distance of a distant object from the eye or which the fully relaxed eye can focus. A person with normal eyesight can see objects very far away such as planets and stars.

What the defects of vision?
Near sightedness / Short-sight / Myopia:
  • If a person cannot see distant objects clearly without aid of spectacles, this defect is known as short-sight or near-sightedness.
  • It is due to the eyeball is too long that the light rays from a distant object are focused in front of retina and a blurred image is produced.
  • This defect is removed with glass or contact lenses that use diverging lenses. Light rays from the distant objects are now diverged by this lens before entering the eye. For observer these rays appear to come from far point and therefore focused on the retina forming sharp image.

Far-sightedness / Hypermetropia:
  • If a person cannot see nearby objects clearly without aid of spectacles. This defect is known as farsightedness.
  • When a person with farsightedness defect tries to focus on a book held closer than the near point, it shortens the focal length as much as it can. However at its shortest the focal length is longer than it should be. Therefore the light rays from book would form image behind the retina.
  • This defect is removed with glass or contact lenses that use converging lenses. The lens refracts the light rays and they converge to form an image on the retina. To the observer these rays appear to come from the near point to form sharp and virtual image on the retina.




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Download Class Notes: Download 10th Class Physics Notes (Unit # 12) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad
Download 10th Class Physics Notes (Unit # 12) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad
Download 10th Class Physics Notes (Unit # 12) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad
Download Class Notes
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