Download 10th Class Chemistry Notes (Unit # 13) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad

Download 10th Class Chemistry Notes (Unit # 13) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad.

Very Easy, Updated & Comprehensive Notes for all types of students i.e. Average / Extra Ordinary
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Download 10th Class Chemistry Notes for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad

SHORT QUESTION

>> Question: Decide whether sucrose is a disaccharide or monosaccharide. Give reason?
Since Sucrose consists of two monomers, therefore sucrose is a disaccharide. (which we call table sugar, cane sugar, or “sugar” itself). Sucrose is a disaccharide of glucose and fructose.

>> Question: What is a dextrose sugar?
Some monosaccharide molecules can rotate the plane of plane polarized light to right (clockwise). They are called dextro-rotatory or dextrose sugars. Glucose, manose, galactose are dextrose sugars.

>> Question: Write the formula of an amino acid and identify functional groups in it.
An amino acid has two functional groups. All amino acids have a carboxyl and amino group in order for them to form long continuous chains of proteins. Structure of amino acid is as follows:
>> Question: What is peptide bond?
                    O
                    ||
The linkage – C – NH – which joins two amino acids units is called a peptide bond. The resulting molecule is called dipeptide.

>> Question: Which compounds are included in lipids?
  • Fats and oils
  • Cholesterol
  • Reproductive hormones
  • Components of cell membrane called phospholipids.
  • Some vitamins (A, D, E and K)

>> Question: What is the function of DNA?
DNA can store and transmit all the genetic information needed to build organisms. For instance, in human beings the single fertilized egg cell carry the information for making legs, hands, head, liver, heart, kidneys etc. DNA is found primarily in the cell nucleus.

Question: Describe the importance of nucleic acids.
Nucleic acids are vital components of all life. They are found in every living cell. They serve as the information and control centers of the cell.
>> Question: Distinguish between mono, di-, and tri-saccharides.
Monosaccharide:
Monosaccharide is simple sugar consists of only one unit. They serve as building blocks for more complex carbohydrate forms. For example Glucose, Fructose, Galactose, Lyxose and Xylose.
Disaccarides:
Disaccarides are group of sugars composed of two monosaccharide groups linked together through the loss of sugar. For example
Maltose = Glucose + Glucose
Sucrose = Glucose + Fructose
Lactose = Glucose + Galactose
Trisaccharides:
Trisaccharides are sugars containing three hexoses. For example Raffinose, found in molasses contain the three hexoses. Nigerotriose Maltotriose Melezitose.

>> Question: What are the sources of lipids?
  • Animals, plants, and marine organisms such as salmon and whales are rich source of lipids.
  • Milk is an important source of animal fat from which butter, ghee, ground nut, coconut, olive etc are good source of vegetable oils.
  • Cod liver oil is obtained from salmon and whales.

Question: Differentiate between fats and oils.
A lipid is called fat if it is solid at room temperature. A lipid is called oil if it is liquid at room temperature. The differences in melting points are due to the degree of unsaturation of constituent  fatty  acids. Fats  contain larger proportion  of saturated  fatty acid units. Oils contain larger proportion of unsaturated fatty acid units. Both are lipids. The main difference is that oil is liquid at room temperature, and fat is not.

Question: Explain hydrogenation of vegetable oil.
Addition of hydrogen  to an alkenes is called hydrogenation. This reaction takes place in the presence of Ni, Pd or Pt as catalyst.
This reaction is used to make margarine or vegetable ghee. Fatty acid component of vegetable oil contains carbon-careen double bonds. When hydrogen is added to these oils, they become saturated and harder.

Question: List commercial uses of enzymes.
Enzymes are large protein molecules. They are biological catalysts. They catalyze  chemical reactions in living organisms. Enzymes are also commercially important. They are used in the production of sweeteners, chocolate syrup, bakery products, infant foods, detergents to remove food stains, in cheese making, 'in paper and pulp industries to remove sticky matter, to prepare fabrics for clothes, furniture and other household items.
Question: Life requires energy. Where this energy comes from?
All  life  require  energy,  which  usually  enters  organisms  as  sunlight,  is transformed into organic compounds such as sugar, and exits as heat.
Question: Can you use the energy of sun light directly to perform all life activities?
No, we cannot use the energy of sun light directly to perform all life activities.

Question: Plants trap sun energy and convert it into chemical energy. How?
Plants store sun energy in substances such as carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. We need these compounds for existence.

Question: For   proper   nutrition, our   diet   should   include which    type of proportions.
For proper nutrition, our diet should   include balanced proportions of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. We also need adequate amount of vitamins, minerals and fibre.

Question: Some   compounds found    in   every    living cell,   serve   as   the information and control centers of the cell.  They have ability to reproduce, store and transmit genetic information. What are these compounds?
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).

Question: What is Protein deficiency?
Protein deficiency leads to physical and mental retardation. Excess lipids or fats may lead to heart diseases or a stroke, cancer, diabetes and other health problems. The nutritional chemists recommend that no more than 30 % of your daily caloric intake come from fat.

Question: List the classification of carbohydrates?
Carbohydrates are classified as:
i) Monosaccharide       ii) Oligosaccharides      iii) Polysaccharides

Question: What is  the  chemical nature  of  monosaccharides?  Discuss their structure?
  • Monosaccharides are the simplest carbohydrates. They cannot be hydrolyzed.
  • They have general formula (CH2O)n  where n is 3 to 6 carbon  atoms.  So monosaccharides contain 3 to 6 carbon atoms.
  • Monosaccharides  are  further   classified   as  trioses,   tetroses,   pentoses, hexoses  etc.  This  classification  is  based  on  the  number  of  carbon  atoms  they contain.
  • Monosaccharides are white crystalline solid. They are soluble  in water and have sweet taste. They cannot be hydrolyzed. They are reducing in nature.
Question: What is the use of dextrose in drips?
5% m/v aqueous solution  of dextrose  is  used  in  drips.  5% m/v aqueous solution means 5 grams of dextrose dissolved in water to form 100cm3 of solution. It is intravenously given to patient who is severely dehydrated or is unable to eat or is not allowed to eat.

Question: Is glucose a pentose?
No, glucose is hexose (C6H12O6).
Question: What  is  the  chemical nature  of  oligosaccharides? Discuss their structure?
  • Carbohydrates which upon hydrolysis form 2 to        9 molecules of monosaccharides or simple sugars are called oligosacchariqes.
  • They are further clarified as disaccharides,  trisaccharides  etc. Prefixes di, tri, tetra, penta etc. indicate the number of monosaccharide units, they produce on hydrolysis. They are white crystalline solids. They have sweet taste and are soluble in water.

Question: What is the chemical   nature   of polysaccharides? Discuss their structure?
Carbohydrates   which  upon  hydrolysis  form  100  to  1000  units  of  simple sugars are called polysaccharides. Starch and cellulose are polysaccharides.  They are amorphous solids. They are tasteless and insoluble in water.  They are non­reducing in nature.

Question: What are proteins? Write their function.
Proteins are complex nitrogenous substances that produce amino acids on complete hydrolysis.
Functions of proteins:
i)      Proteins transport and store oxygen and nutrients.
ii)      Proteins act as catalysts for the thousands of reactions that make life possible.
iii)     Proteins regulate many important systems in our bodies.
Characteristics of proteins:
Proteins are high molecular weight polymers. The building blocks of all proteins are the amino acids therefore; all proteins produce amino acids on hydrolysis.

Question: An amino acid has two functional groups. What are those?
An amino acid has two functional groups. Alt amino acids have a carboxyl and amino  group  in  order  for  them  to  form  long  continuous  chains  of proteins.

Question: What is Kwashiorkor:
An extreme lack of proteins and vitamins causes a deficiency disease called kwashiorkor.  The symptoms include retarded growth, discolouration of skin and hair, bloating, a swollen belly and mental apathy.

Question: What is Loss of vitamins:
Some foods lose their vitamin contents when they are cooked  in water and then drained. The water soluble vitamins go down the drain with water. For example rice, pulses, beans, gram, peas etc.

Question: What is Lipid?
A lipid is any component of plant or animal tissue that is insoluble in water,  but soluble  in solvents  of low polarity  such as ether,  hexane,  benzene and carbon  tetrachlonde.

Question: What is Fatty acid?
Fatty acids are long chain carboxylic acids. A lipid is called fat if it is solid at room temperature. A lipid is called oil if it is liquid at room temperature.

Question: What are Source of lipids:
Animals,  plants  and marine  organisms such  as  salmon and whales  are rich source of lipids

Question: What is Nucleic acids?
Nucleic  acids serve as the information and control centers  of the cell.

Question: What is DNA?
DNA exists in the form of two strands twisted around each other in a spiral formation called a double helix.

LONG QUESTION

>> Question: Describe bonding in a protein molecule?
An amino acid has two functional groups. All amino acids have a carboxyl and amino group in order for them to form long continuous chains of proteins. Amino acids are building blocks of protein synthesis. Twenty different amino acids are involved in protein synthesis.
Non-Essential and Essential amino acids:
Out of 20 amino acids, our bodies can synthesize only 10 such amino acids. Such amino acids are called non-essential amino acids. The remaining 10 are essential amino acids.
Joining of two molecules of amino acids:
Molecules of amino acids join together through amino (-NH2) group of one molecule and carboxyl (-COOH) group of another molecule by eliminating a molecule of water. 
Peptide Bond:
                    O
                    ||
The linkage – C – NH – which joins two amino acids units is called a peptide bond. The resulting molecule is called dipeptide. There is still an amino group on the left and a carboxyl group on the right. Each of these groups can react further to join more amino acid units. In this way thousands of amino acids units join to form a giant molecule of protein.

>> Question: What are uses of lipids?
  • Butter, ghee and vegetable oils are used for cooking and frying of food, preparing bakery products and sweets.
  • In mammals a layer of fat is present under the skin. This layer acts as a thermal insulator.   
  • Fats protect delicate organs from shocks. A layer of fat around our heart and kidneys protect these organs from injury.
  • Lipids provide some vitamins such as A, D and E which are essential for health, These vitamins are insoluble in water and soluble in lipids.
  • Fats and oils are important food stores in living organisms. They provide about twice, as much energy per gram as do carbohydrates.
  • Vegetable oils are converted into vegetable ghee or margarine by catalytic hydrogenation.
  • Fats and oils are also used for the manufacture of materials like soaps and detergents, cosmetic, polishes, paints and varnishes
  • In our bodies cholesterol is essential for the synthesis of several hormones, vitamin D and bile acids.

>> Question: Give sources and uses of proteins.
Meat, fish, eggs, milk and cheese are important sources of proteins. Plants also provide us proteins. For example, pulses, beans, meat, egg, fish etc. are rich in proteins.
Uses of Proteins:
  • We require proteins in our diet, to provide amino acids to make muscles, hair, enzymes and repair of body tissues.
  • Proteins are essential for the formation of protoplasm and components of cells.
  • Proteins are essential for. both physical and mental growth especially in children.
  • A protein called gelatin is obtained by heating  bones and tendons in water.
  • It  is used in bakery goods.
  • Enzymes are proteins that catalyze specific biological reactions, without which life would be impossible.
  • The  antibodies that help  us  to  fight against disease  are  large protein molecules.

What are Uses of Carbohydrates:
  • Carbohydrates  store and transport  energy in both plants and animals. 1g of glucose provides us 15.6 KJ of energy.
  • They serve as food source for most organisms.
  • Carbohydrates serve as structural material for plants. Cellulose in the human diet is referred as fibre. It is found in bran, whole meal bread, fruit and vegetables.  We cannot digest it but. it is very  important for us. It helps  the muscles  of  your intestines  to  move  food  efficiently  through  the  digestive track.   It  absorbs  and  carries  away  toxic  chemicals   In  food  that  would otherwise harm us. It also helps in lowering cholesterol and regulates  blood pressure.
  • Sucrose in used as common table sugar.
  • Glucose is stored in animal muscles and liver cells in the form of glycogen.
  • Glycogen serves as long term energy reservoir. It can be converted back to glucose when needed for energy. Plants store excess energy as starch.
  • Starch is used to make rectified spirit by fermentation process.
  • Starch is converted to dextrin which is used as an adhesive for stamps and as wallpaper glue.
  • Cows, cattle, goats, deer, sheep and termites derive nutrition from cellulose.
  • We use cellulose in the form of woqd for heat, housing and furniture.
  • Wood is also used to make paper and wood pulp.
  • Ceflutose fibre of cotton is used to make rayon and cellulose acetate, which are used in textile industry for making cloth.

Question: Define and explain vitamins.
Vitamins are specific organic compounds which are required by our bodies to prevent specific diseases but cannot be produced by our bodies. They must be present in our diet in addition to proteins, fats, carbohydrates and minerals. Vitamin D deficiency  causes  softening  of  bones.  Vitamin B3 deficiency causes inflammation and abnormal pigmentation.
Importance of vitamins:
Vitamins are substances that are essential for our bodies.
Vitamin A:
Vitamin A is important in vision. It helps in the chemical transmission of images from the eye to the brain. It also keeps the cornea moist.
Vitamin C:
Vitamin C is required for the formation of blood and boosting the immune system that protects against illnesses ranging from common cold to cancer.
Vitamin B:
Vitamin B helps to regulate nerve impulse transmissions,- in the formation of haemoglobin  and activates more than 100 different enzymes.
Vitamin D:
Vitamin D regulates blood calcium. It is necessary for proper bone and tooth growth.

Question: Explain the sources and uses of carbohydrates?
  • Carbohydrates  are monomers  and polymers of aldehydes and ketones  that have numerous hydroxyl groups attached.
  • Carbohydrates are the most abundant class of organic compounds. Carbohydrates have the general formula Cx(H2O)y. This formula suggests that they are hydrates of carbon with few exceptions. Plants synthesize carbohydrates through photosynthesis.

Sunlight
6H2O + 6CO2      -------------------->       C6H12O6 + 6O2
                        Chlorophyll

  • Plants convert glucose into starch and cellulose.


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Download Class Notes: Download 10th Class Chemistry Notes (Unit # 13) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad
Download 10th Class Chemistry Notes (Unit # 13) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad
Download 10th Class Chemistry Notes (Unit # 13) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad
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