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Download 10th Class Chemistry Notes (Unit # 16) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad

Download 10th Class Chemistry Notes (Unit # 16) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad.

Very Easy, Updated & Comprehensive Notes for all types of students i.e. Average / Extra Ordinary

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Download 10th Class Chemistry Notes (Unit # 16) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad

SHORT QUESTION

>> Question: How are urea prills produced?
The urea solution is concentrated in vacuum evaporators, which is  then rapidly cooled and sent to the prilling tower. Urea prills thus produced are packed and then marketed.
>> Question: What is slaked lime? How is it produced?
Slaked lime is Ca(OH)2
Preparation of slaked lime:
Carbon dioxide is produced by heating limestone in a kiln.
     Heat
CaCO3 --------------> CaO  + CO2

Carbon dioxide is fed into the carbonating tower from the top. Equal amounts of lime (CaO) and water are mixed to produce slaked lime, Ca(OH)2.
CaO + H2O --------------> Ca(OH)2

>> Question: Write chemical  reactions   that   take  place  during carbonation in Solvay process.
Carbonation:
In the carbonating tower, carbon dioxide is passed through ammonical brine. Following reaction takes place in it.
CO2 + NH3 + H2O  --------------> NH4HCO3
     15°C
NH4HCO3 + NaCl  -------------->     NaHCO3 + NH4Cl

In  the  lower  compartments  of carbonating  tower,  the  temperature  of the mixture is lowered to 15°C. At this temperature, NaHC03 precipitates out.

>> Question: Explain the process "Roasting" with two examples.
Some minerals are converted to oxide by heating in the air at temperature below their melting point. This process is called roasting. For example, the roasting for zinc blende (ZnS) is
      heat
2ZnS + 3O2 --------------> 2ZnO + 2SO2

Roasting reaction for cinnabar (HgS) is

   heat
HgS + O2 --------------> Hg + SO2

Roasting reaction of copper pyrite ore is:
heat
2CuFeS2 + O2 --------------> Cu2S + 2FeS + SO2

>> Question: Write  chemical reactions that take place during  urea formation.
Raw materials for the manufacture of urea:
Manufacturing of urea consists of following steps.
i)      Ammonia (NH3)
ii)      Carbon dioxide (CO2)
i)      Reaction between NH3 and CO2 to form ammonium carbonate.
NH3 + CO2 --------------> NH2CONH4 + H2O
ii)     Distillation of ammonium carbonate.
                                                O
                                                ||
NH2CONH4 -------------->    NH2 --- C--- NH2 + H20
iii)    Evaporation of liquid urea and its granulation.
The  urea  solution  is concentrated  in vacuum  evaporators,  which  is  then rapidly cooled  and sent to the prilling tower. Urea prills thus produced are packed and then marketed.

>> Question: Make a list of metallurgical operations.
Metallurgy:
The process of separating a metal from its ore and preparing it for use is known as metallurgy.
Basic Metallurgical Operations:
i.      Crushing, grinding or pulverizing of the ore
ii.      Concentration of the ore
iii.     Extraction of metal
iv.     Refining of metal.

>> Question: How was crude oil formed?
Origin/formation of Petroleum or crude oil:
·         It is believed that petroleum was formed from organisms that lived hundreds of millions of years ago.
·         Plants and animals in the seas died. Their remains piled up. Layers of sand, rock and mud buried the dead organisms.
·         Over time, in the absence of air, heat and pressure of sediments and bacterial effect changed the material into dark brownish viscous liquid called petroleum.  It is also called crude oil.
·         The gaseous products accumulated over the petroleum, is called as natural gas.

>> Question: State five specific products made from crude oil.
Natural   gas,   Butane,   Propane,   Gasoline,   Home   heating   oil,  Plastics, Kerosene and jet fuel, Diesel.

>> Question: Describe composition of urea.
Urea or carbamide is an organic compound with the chemical formula CO(NH2)2. The  molecule  has  two -NH2 groups joined by a carbonyl (C = 0) functional group.

>> Question: Make a list of raw materials for Solvay process.
·         Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) or soda ash is an important industrial chemical.
·         It is used in the manufacturing of glass, soaps, detergents, paper and many other important chemicals.
·         Sodium carbonate is manufactured in a continuous process known as the Solvay process.
Raw Materials:
a)     Ammonia
b)     Brine (concentrated sodium chloride solution)
c)     Lime stone as a source of carbon dioxide and slaked lime, Ca(OH)2

>> Question: Describe the composition of petroleum.
Petroleum is essentially a mixture of hydrocarbons  particularly  alkanes, cycloalkanes  and aromatic hydrocarbons.  Apart from hydrocarbons it may also contain compounds containing oxygen and nitrogen.
>> Question: Petroleum  is  a  source of fuels. Name two fuels which are not obtain from petroleum.
There are  several types,  such  as hydrogen fuel (for  automotive uses), ethanol, and biodiesel, which are also categorized as a liquid fuel.
>> Question: What has to be done to crude oil before it is useful.
Crude oil is a mixture• of hydrocarbons. These are separated into useful products, such as fuels, using a process called fractional distillation in fractionating tower.
>> Question: Should fossil fuels be burned to provide energy, or should they be used to make useful products like drugs, plastics and chemicals?
Hemp oil or hemp-seed oil is obtained by pressing hemp seeds can be used to create biofuels to replace gasoline for diesel engines. Unlike fossil fuels, biofuels are renewable and produce less of the greenhouse gas carbon monoxide. Therefore fossil fuels should be used to make useful products like drugs, plastics and chemicals.
>> Question: What is  the chemical name of dhobi soda or washing soda?
Sodium Carbonate Decahydrate Na2CO3.10H2O
>> Question: Define mineral, gangue and ore.
Mineral:
The naturally occurring metallic compounds are called minerals.
Gangue:
The debris, such as sand, rock and clay attached with the mineral is called gangue.
Ore:
An ore is a solid deposit containing a sufficiently high percentage of a mineral to make extraction of metal economically feasible.

>>Question: Explain the process "Concentration" with examples.
Concentration:
After mining ore though crushing, grinding or pulverizing steps is converted into the powder. Then mineral is separated from gangue by some physical method. This process is called concentration. Some of these methods are as Magnetic Separation, Cyclone Separation & Flotation Process etc.

>> Question: Make a list of basic operations In extraction of metals.
After the mineral has been freed of gangue  and concentrated  it is passed through some chemical process to extract metal.
a)   Roasting
b)   Smelting
c)   Bessemerization
d)   Refiding of purification of metals.

>> Question: List the advantages of Solvay process.
i)      It is a cheap process. The raw materials are cheap and easily available.
ii)      It is a pollution free process. No harmful products are produced.
iii)     It consumes less fuel. This is because there is no solution to be evaporated.
iv)     Carbon dioxide and ammonia are recovered and re-used in the process.
v)     It produces pure NaHCO3 and Na2CO3

>> Question: Why fertilizers are added to the soil?
  • As the world population has increased the demand for food has increased.
  • The world population was 3.5 billion in 1965. By 2050, it will reach 10 billion.
  • Many people today are hungry and many more are under-nourished.
  • Crops take nutrients from the soil, and these must be replaced before the next crop is sown.
  • Fertilizers are the compounds which are put in the soil to provide elements essential for plant's life.
  • They are added to the soil to make up the deficiency  caused by the previous crops.

>> Question: List the classification of fertilizers?
Fertilizers are classified into two categories:
1.        Natural fertilizers:
Natural fertilizers or manures derived from animals and human wastes.
2.        Synthetic fertilizers:
Synthetic fertilizers i.e.  urea CO(NH2)2, ammonium sulphate  (NH4)2SO4, ammonium phosphate (NH4)3PO4, calcium super phosphate Ca(H2PO4)2 and di-ammonium  phosphate (NH4)2HPO4.


>> Question: Why urea is one of the widely  used fertilizer?
·         Percentage of nitrogen is highest among all the synthetic nitrogen fertilizers i.e. 46%.
·         It does not affect the texture of the soil.
·         In the soil it hydrolyses quickly to ammonium carbonate which eventually changes into NH3 which decomposes into N2 and H2.
·         Nitrogen is the main constituent of proteins; it is required by the stems and leaves during the early stages of the plant development.
·         It imparts  green colour to the leaves and increases  the yield and quality of the crop.
>> Question: Compare natural fertilizers with synthetic fertilizers.
Natural  fertilizers  are  better  than  synthetic  fertilizers.  Natural  fertilizers are insoluble in water.  They  decompose slowly  and gradually by  bacteria  and  liberate useful  water  soluble  nutrients  for plants.  They  do not  contain  toxic  chemicals and hence   do  not  damage   the  soil  crops   and  plants
>> Question: What do you understand by fossil fuel?
Fossil fuels are energy-rich substances formed from remains of organisms. Coal, petroleum and natural gas are called fossil fuels because they were formed underground from the remains of once-living organisms.
>> Question: Define petroleum.
The name petroleum is derived from Latin words petra (rock) and oleum (oil).  It is also called as crude oil. Petroleum or crude oil is thick dark liquid composed mostly of hydrocarbons.
>> Question: Define natural gas.
Natural gas, usually associated with petroleum deposits, consists mostly of methane. It also contains significant amounts of ethane, propane and butane.

LONG QUESTION

>> Question: Describe the followings with an example.
a)     roasting    b)     smelting   c)      flotation
a) Roasting:
Some minerals are converted to oxide by heating in the air at temperature below their melting point. This process is called roasting. For example, the roasting for zinc blende (ZnS) is
      heat
2ZnS + 3O2 --------------> 2ZnO + 2SO2
Roasting reaction for cinnabar (HgS) is
   heat
HgS + O2 --------------> Hg + SO2
Roasting reaction of copper pyrite ore is:
heat
2CuFeS2 + O2 --------------> Cu2S + 2FeS + SO2

b) Smelting:
  • The method to reduce metal ions to free metal is called smelting.
  • The   most  common   reducing   agents   are   coke,   carbon   monoxide   and hydrogen.
  • Some examples are:
Fe2O3 + CO --------------> 2Fe + 3CO2
WO3 + 3H2 --------------> W + 3H2O
ZnO + C --------------> Zn + CO
However, smelting of copper ore is done in two steps.
i)       The roasted copper ore is heated with coke and sand at about 1100°C. The materials melt and separate into two layers.  The bottom layer that contains mixture of Cu2S and FeS is called matte. While the upper layer is a silicate slag formed by the reaction of FeO and sand
2FeS + O2  --------------> 2FeO + 2SO2
FeO + SiO2 --------------> FeSiO3
ii)     Bessemerization:
·         In this process air is blown through the molten-copper matte in a Bessemer converter.
·         Any remaining iron sulplide (FeS) is oxidized and removed as slag (FeSiO3). 
·         In the final smelting step cuprous sulphide (Cu2S) is oxidized to form cuprous oxide, which reacts with remaining cuprous  sulphide to form metallic copper.

2Cu2S + 3O2 --------------> 2Cu2O + 2SO2
Cu2S + 2Cu2O --------------> 6Cu  + SO2

·         The  product,  called  blister  copper  is  about  97  to  99%  pure  Cu,  with entrapped  bubbles of SO2. Bessemerization is also used to convert pure iron into steel.

c) Flotation Process:
·         Pulverized  ore  is  fed  into  a  tank  containing  water  and  an  oil-detergent mixture.
·         The mixture is agitated with air.
·         Detergents wet the mineral particles but not the silicate gangue.
·         The mineral particles rise to the top of the mixture as a forth, from  where they are skimmed  off.
·         Particles of the gangue fall down to the bottom.
·         The copper ore is concentrated generally by flotation process.

>> Question: Outline basic reactions of Solvay process.
i)       Preparation of ammonical brine:
Ammonical   brine   is   prepared   by   dissolving   ammonia   gas   in   brine. Ammonical brine is fed into the carbonating tower.
ii)     Carbonation:
In the carbonating tower, carbon dioxide is passed through ammonical brine. Following reaction takes place in it.
CO2 + NH3 + H2O --------------> NH4HC03
     15°C
NH4HCO3 + NaCI --------------> NaHC03 + NH4Cl
In the lower compartments of carbonating tower, the temperature of the mixture is lowered to 15°C. At this temperature, NaHCO3 precipitates out.
iii)    Filtration:
Precipitates of NaHCO3 are separated from the milky solution by filtration. It is used as baking soda.
iv)    Calcinations:
Sodium hydrogen carbonate is heated to get sodium carbonate
                heat
2NaHCO3 --------------> Na2CO3 + CO2 + H2O
Carbon dioxide released is re-cycled in the process.

v)      Preparation of carbon dioxide and slaked lime.
Carbon dioxide is produced by heating limestone in a kiln.
      heat
CaCO3 --------------> CaO + CO2
Carbon dioxide is fed into the carbonating tower from the top. Equal amounts of lime (CaO) and water are mixed to produce slaked lime, Ca(OH)2
CaO + H2O --------------> Ca (OH)2
Slaked lime is pumped to the ammonia recovery tower.
vi)    Recovery of ammonia:
Solution congaing ammonium chloride produced in the carbonation tower is heated with slaked lime.
                               heat
2NH4Cl + Ca(OH)2 --------------> 2NH3 + CaCl2 + 2H2O
Almost all the ammonia is recovered in this process. It is reused in the process.

>> Question: Draw flow sheet diagram of Solvay process.
1.     Represent   each reactant, each product   and each reaction chamber or container with one box.
2.     Show formation of ammonical brine and join it with carbonation tower
3.     Show the formation of CO2 with a box and connect it with carbonation tower.
4.     Show formation of two products from the carbonation tower.
5.     Show formation of Na2CO3 and CO2 from NaHCO3 and show recycling of CO2.
6.     Show ammonia recovery

Flow Sheet Diagram (Solvey Proces)


>> Question: Relate the study of chemistry to careers in industry.
·         A person who studies chemistry and works with chemicals is called as chemist.
·         Chemists have opportunities in all the field of chemistry. For instance, organic chemists have good opportunities to work in industries like petroleum, petrochemical and pharmaceutical.
·         They can research on new products, more effective medicines, new pesticides for better crops, new ways to help people reduce environmental pollution etc.
·         As a food chemist; you can work in food processing industry.
·         You can discover new methods to store, improve texture and flavor of foods.
·         In hospitals, chemists analyze blood, urine and stood samples to detect any disease, disease causing bacteria, virus, or other microorganisms.
·         As nuclear chemist you can work in the development of new nuclear medicines   besides   giving   chemotherapy   and radiation   therapy   to cancer patients.
·         As inorganic chemist you can work in chemical industries such as manufacturing cement, glass, soap and detergent, fertilizer, acids, alkalis, soda ash, dyes, explosives etc.

>> Question: Explain refining or purification of metals?             
Refining or purification of metals:
The metal obtained as a result of smelting contains some impurities.  So it must be refined. Following methods may be used.
i)      Electro-refining:
  • An electrolytic cell is used in electro-refining, in which impure metal acts as the anode and a sample of pure metal acts as the cathode.
  • For example, electrolytic refining of copper is carried out in an electrolytic  tank containing acidified  copper sulphate  solution  as  electrolyte.
  • Impure  slabs  of  copper  act  as  anode  and  pure copper sheets as cathode.
  • On passing  electric  current  through  the  solution,  impure  copper  dissolves forming Cu+2 ions.
  • These Cu+2 ions gain electrons at cathode and form Cu atoms, which are deposited on the cathode. In this way pure copper is collected at cathode.
  • The impurities like Au and Ag fall off the anode as anode mud.
ii)     Distillation:
Metals with relatively low melting points, such as Hg are refined by distillation.


>> Question: Describe briefly the fractional distillation of Petroleum.
  • The conversion of crude oil into useful products is called refining.
  • These useful  products   are  called  fractions.   Each  fraction   consists   of  a  mixture  of hydrocarbons which boil in a certain range of temperature.
Fraction  distillation:
  • Petroleum is refined by fractional distillation in a tall fractionating tower.
  • The crude oil is heated up to 400°C under high pressure in a furnace.
  • Then it is passed through the fractional distillation column.
  • Its vapours rise through the column.
  • As hot vapour move up, they condense according to their boiling points into various fractions.
  • Compounds with highest boiling points condense first near the bottom.
  • Compounds   with   lowest   boiling   point   condense   last   near   the   top.
  • Compounds which do not boil, collects at the bottom as residue.
  • In this way vapour condense gradually at different levels according to their boiling  points.
  • Therefore, crude oil is separated into various fractions.  Each fraction has its own  specific boiling range and composition.

Fraction
Approx. boiling temperat-ure range in oC.
Approx. number
of carbon atoms
per molecule.
Uses
Petroleum Gases
Below 0
1-4
These gases are liquified and sold as bottled gas for cookers and stoves.
Gasoline (Petrol)
0-65
5-6
Liquids at room temperature  used to drive vehicles.
Naphta
65-170
6-10
Naphtha is used by petrochemicals industry as a source of chemicals.

Kerosene Oil
170-250
10-14
Aviation fuel (Jet Fuel) and fuel used in Paraffin stoves
Diesel Oil
250-340
14-19
Used in buses and trains.
Lubricating Oil
340-500
19-35
Used in cars, buses, trucks etc.
Fuel Oil
340-500
Above 20
Used in ships, heating plants and power stations
Bitumen
Above 500
Above 35
Used to tar roads and to water proofs and pipes.



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Download Class Notes: Download 10th Class Chemistry Notes (Unit # 16) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad
Download 10th Class Chemistry Notes (Unit # 16) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad
Download 10th Class Chemistry Notes (Unit # 16) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad
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