Download 10th Class Physics Notes (Unit # 16) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad

Download 10th Class Physics Notes (Unit # 16) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad.

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Download 10th Class Physics Notes for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad

Describe using one simple diagram in each case, what happens when a narrow beam of electrons is passed through (a) a uniform electric field (b) a uniform magnetic field. What do these results indicate about the charge on the electron?
Uniform Electric Field:
When an electron beam is passed through a uniform electric field it deflects and accelerates the electron beam.

Uniform Magnetic Field:
When an electron beam is passed through a uniform magnetic field it only deflects the electron beam

The two above results show that electrons carry negative charge.

Explain the working of different parts of oscilloscope.
Cathode Ray Oscilloscope (CRO):
It is used to display the magnitude of rapidly changing electric current or potentials as a function of time. The information is displayed on the face end of cathode ray tube called fluorescent screen. It consists of following components:
The Electron Gun:
·         It is essential and initial part of cathode ray tube and consists of electron source which is electrically heated cathode that ejects electrons.
·         It has an electrode called grid G for controlling the flow of electrons in the beam. The grid G is at negative potential with respect to cathode.
·         By making it more negative with respect to cathode, so electrons are repelled and fewer electrons reaching the screen.
·         It controls the number of electrons so intensity of the beam and hence, the brightness of the luminous spot at the screen.
·         The two anodes A1 and A2 which are at high positive potential with respect to cathode F accelerate as well as focus the electron beam to fixed spot on the screen.
The Deflecting Plates:
·         After leaving the electron gun, the electron beam passes between two pair of plates.
·         A pair of horizontal plates. A potential difference applied between these plates deflects the beam in a vertical plane. This pair of plates provides the Y-axis or vertical movement of the spot on the screen.
·         Similarly, second pair of vertical plates provides the X-axis or horizontal movement of the spot on the screen.
A fluorescent screen:
·         The screen of a cathode ray tube Consists of a thin layer of a phosphor, which is a material that gives light as the result of bombardment by fast moving electrons.
·         The phosphor is applied to the inside of the end of the tube by spraying, dusting or precipitation from a liquid.

Write some uses of oscilloscope.
Cathode ray oscilloscope is a versatile electrical instrument which is in fact a high speed graph plotting device.
Voltage Measurement:
Enter the unknown voltage at “Y-input" and the “VOLT/DIV” knob at the oscilloscope can be tuned to be used as voltmeter.
Time Measurement:
By adjusting the “TIME/DIV" knob the oscilloscope can be used to measure the time.
To show the x-t signal:
Oscilloscope can display the time signal (voltage-time or current-time) I output whether it can be shown in beat high frequency wave.
To show the x-y graph:
The relation between two variables can be displayed by entering a horizontal signal and vertical signal.

Considering an oscilloscope explain the followings.
How the filament is heated?
Filament is heated by a battery usually of 6 Volts.
Why the filament is heated?
Filament is heated to get the electrons by thermionic emission.
Why the anode potential is positive with respect to the cathode potential?
The anode potential is positive with respect to the cathode because I electrons being negatively charged particles are accelerated towards the anode (positive potential).
Why large potential is applied between anode and cathode.
The degree of deflection and acceleration produced in electrons is proportional to the strength of the electric field, so high potential will accelerate the electrons to high speed and they shoot straight through the hole of the anode in a fine beam of electrons.
Why the tube is evacuated?
The tube is evacuated because electrons could not collide with other gas to give rise other electrons and ions.

What is electron gun? Describe the process of thermionic emission.
·         Electron gun is an important mean to provide continuous beam of electrons.
·         It consists of a evacuated glass tube at a very low pressure.
·         The electrons are produced by thermionic emission from a tungsten filament heated by a battery, usually 6 V supply.
·         A high positive potential (several thousands) is applied to cylindrical anode (+).
·         The electrons will be accelerated to a high speed and they shoot straight through the hole of the anode in a fine beam of electrons.
What do you understand by digital and analogue quantities?
Analogue Quantities:
The analogue quantities are those whose values vary continuously. For example the variation of temperature with time during a day. This shows that temperature variation with time is continuous. So we can say that temperature is an analogue quantity with respect to time. Similarly, pressure, distance covered by a moving car etc are all analogue physical quantities.
Digital Quantities:
The part of electronics which processes the data provided in the form of digits or numbers is known as “digital electronics”. Digital electronics uses only two numbers 1 (high) and 0 (low), the whole data is provided in binary system due to which processing has become very easy.

Differentiate between analogue electronics and digital electronics. Write down names of five analogue and five digital devices that are commonly used in everyday life.
Analogue Electronics:
The section of electronics, which is concerned with circuits processing analogue quantities like current, voltage etc, is called analogue electronics. Five analogue devices are:
1)     Refrigerators      2)     Electric fans        3)     Electric iron
4)     Electric lamps     5)     Radio receiver.
Digital Electronics:
Digital electronics use the digital signal in a sequence of voltage pulses represented in binary digits “0” and “1”. Computer operates by counting the digits. Fives digital devices are:
1)     Computer           2)     T.V.                   3)     Digital camera
4)     Mobile Phone      5)     Security system

State and the explain each case whether the information given by the following devices is in analogue or a digital form.
a)      a moving-coil voltmeter measuring the e.m.f of a cell.
It is analogue device which measure the value of emf of a cell. The deflection of the moving coil is continuous variation with time. It is analogue signal.

b)      a microphone generating art-electric current.
A public address system (loud speaker system) is an example of analogue electronic system. The microphone converts sound energy into continuously varying voltage/current. It is called analogue voltage/current signal. This signal is applied to an amplifier, which is also analogue electronic circuit, which amplifies the signal without changing its shape, which operates the loud speaker.

c)      a central heating thermostat controlling the flow of traffic.
The thermostat depends upon the atmospheric temperature which varies continuously with time. It is an analogue signal. So the thermostat controlling the flow of traffic is an analogue device.
d)      automatic traffic lights controlling the flow of traffic.
It is a digital system which is being operated between two values “1” high (Present) and low “0” (Not present).

Write down some benefits of using digital electrons over analogue electronics.
Digital electronics use the digital signal in a sequence of voltage pulses represented in binary digits “0” and “1”. Computer operates by counting the digits. The process with numbers becomes fast, reliable and less error as unpaired to analogue signal.
Digital electronics is being used in every modern electronic device like modern telephone system, radar system, naval and other military controlling systems, modern cameras, control system of operation of industrial machines, medical equipment etc.

What are the three universal Logic gates? Give their symbols and truth tables.
Logic Gates:
The electronic circuit which are designed to implement various logic operations. These circuits are called logic gates.
AND Gate:
·         The electronic circuit which implement AND operation is called AND gate.
·         In digital electronics 0 and 1 digits are allotted to two potential levels 0 for minimum or low, and 1 for maximum or high.
·         Usually 0 is used for earth and 1 is used for 5V (typical value).
·         The truth table and symbol for AND gate is shown in figure below.

OR Gate:
·         The electronic circuit which implement the truth table of OR operation in called OR gate.
·         The truth table and symbol for such a circuit is shown in figure.
·         The gate also has two (or more than two) inputs and has only one output OR operation is represented as follows X= A+B.
·         It is read as “output X is equal to input A or input B”. The truth table for OR operation is given below:

NOR Gate:
·         In this type of operation there is only one Boolean variable as input.
·         And has one Boolean variable as output.
·         Not operation always negates the sense of input for example if we have logic statement that.
·         X is student of 1oth class then its negative is the output, which is “X is not student of 10th class”.
·         This shows that if input is, 1 then output is, O. and if input is zero the output is equal to 1.
·         This operation is symbolically written as.
Output = negation of single input A, It is written as
x = A
·         It is read as a output is equal to negation of input A. It is also read as “X equals A NOT”.
·         The truth table for the NOT operation is shown in figure below.

X = A

Name two factors which can enhance thermionic emission.
It depends upon:
i)             The substance used as filament because different materials have different number of free available electrons.
ii)           The value of the battery used to make it heated.

Give three reasons to support the evidence that cathode rays are negatively charged electrons.
·         The cathode rays are deflected and accelerated towards positively charged plate.
·         The deflection of cathode rays is the presence of magnetic field shows that these are negatively charged particles.
·         Grid in the oscilloscope is negatively charged and the electrons are repelled by the grid G. It shows that cathode rays (electron beam) is negatively charged particles.
When electrons pass through two parallel plates having opposite charges they are deflected towards the positively charged plate. What important characteristics of the electron can be inferred from this?
If electrons will deflect towards the positive charged plate it means electrons are negatively charged particles.

When a moving electron enters the magnetic field, it is deflected from its straight path. Name two factors which can enhance electron deflection.
·         Fast moving electrons pass through magnetic field, they are deflected from their straight path shows that these are charged particles.
·         The deflection can be enhanced by increasing the velocity and magnetic field strength.
In what ways is an oscilloscope a voltmeter?
Voltage Measurement:
Enter the unknown voltage at “Y-input” and the “VOLT/DIV” knob at the oscilloscope can be tuned to be used as voltmeter.

How can you compare the logic operation X = AB with usual Operation of multiplication.
There is logic operation which is give by the equation (X = A.B). It is called AND gate. The truth table of this gate is given below.
This particular gate holds the usual operation of multiplication.

NAND gate is the reciprocal of AND gate. Discuss
NAND gate is not reciprocal of AND gate. We can say that NAND gate is inversion of AND gate. If X is output of NAND gate then mathematically we can write as X = A.B



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Download Class Notes: Download 10th Class Physics Notes (Unit # 16) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad
Download 10th Class Physics Notes (Unit # 16) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad
Download 10th Class Physics Notes (Unit # 16) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad
Download Class Notes
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