Download 10th Class Physics Notes (Unit # 17) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad

Download 10th Class Physics Notes (Unit # 17) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad.

Very Easy, Updated & Comprehensive Notes for all types of students i.e. Average / Extra Ordinary
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Download 10th Class Physics Notes for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad
REVIEW QUESTIONS

What is difference between data and information?
Data is raw information in the form of figures, alphabet, or graphics. But information is a processed data on some logical operations that can be used for useful purposes.

What do you understand by information and communication technology (ICT)?
Information and communication technology is electronic based system which deals with scientific methods and means to store and process vast amount of information in seconds and of telecommunication to transmit it almost instantaneously.
It is combination of two fields, namely "Information Technology" (IT) and "Communication Technology" (CT).

What are the components of information technology? Clearly indicate the function of each component.
There are five parts (components) work together to produce Computer Based Information System (CBIS).
1) Hardware:
The term hardware refers to machinery. This includes the computer itself, which is referred as central processing unit (CPU), and all of its supporting devices like input, output, storage and communication devices.
2) Software:
The term software refers to computer programs. Computer programs are machine-readable instructions that direct the circuitry within the hardware parts of the CBIS to function in ways that produce useful information from data. Programs are usually stored on disks.
3) Data:
Data are facts that are used by programs to produce useful information. It may in the form of graphic or figure that can be recorded. Data is usually stored on disk or tape.
4) Procedure:
These ate set of instructions and rules to design and use information system. These ate written in manuals and documents for use.
5) People:
Every CBIS needs people if it is to be useful. The component “people” that most influence the success or failure of information systems.

Differentiate between the primary memory and the secondary memory.
Primary Memory:
It is based on electronics and consists of integrated circuits (ICs). It is Random Access Memory (RAM). It vanishes when the computer is switched off.
Secondary Storage Devices:
The data stored devices are generally the secondary memory of the computer. It is used to store data permanently in the computer. When we open a program data is moved from the secondary storage into the primary storage
Name different information storage devices and describe their uses.
Audio And Video Cassettes:
Audio (related to sound) cassettes consist of magnetic tapes on which sound is saved in a particular form by the help of magnetic field. Microphone changes sound waves into electric pulses which are made by amplifier.
Magnetic Disks:
There are different types of magnetic disks, which are coated, with a layer of some magnetic material. The read/write head of disks is similar to the record replay head on a tape recorder.
Floppy Disk:
A floppy disc is made of flexible plastic wafer packed in plastic case. It is coated with magnetic oxide. Floppy disc is cheap, convenient, and reliable but lack the storage capacity and speed for many large jobs. It has storage capacity from 1 to 3 MB.
Hard Disk:
Hard disc is made of aluminum and is not flexible like floppy drive or CD's. It is enameled with a layer of a metal like Fe, Co, Kr, Ni which can be magnetized easily. Hard disk has higher speed and larger capacity of data storage. It is also called storage disk. A large amount of information can be read or write on the hard disk.
Hard disk is made by joining many plates and each is accessed via read/write head on a moveable armature. This disc revolves inside a box with great speed about its axis. It is enclosed in by a jacket to avoid exterior pollution.
Compact Disc (CD):
It is molded plastic disc containing digital data that is scanned by a laser beam for the reproduction of recorded sound or other information. A pit pattern is formed on it. This has billions of pits of varying lengths and spaces on a shiny disc. Shiny area between every two consecutive pits is called a "flat". The pit pattern is read by fine laser beam. It is focused on a particular take.
Flash Drive:
It is an electronic device that consists of data storage ICs. A flash drive is a small storage device that can be used to transport files from one computer to another. A flash drive is easy to use. Once we have created a paper or other work. We can simply plug our flash drive into a USB port and the work can be saved in the flash drive.

Explain briefly the transmission of radio waves through space?
Information like sound, video clips, graphics etc. can be sent from one place to another place. First by changing the information into electrical signals and then these signals are superimposed on electromagnetic waves which are called carriers waves. These carriers waves travel in space and then at the receiving end this information is demodulated into original information.

How light signals are sent through opticalfiber?
As "Optics" means related to "Light" & "Fiber" means "Thread". Optical Fiber is a strand of glass or plastic not much thicker than human hair uses light signals to transfer information from one end to other.
Principle:
Propagation of light signals in an optical fiber requires the light should be confined within the fiber. This is done by total internal reflection that the angle of incidence should be greater than the critical angle.

What is computer? What is the role of computer in everyday life?
Computer is an, electronic, computing device. It makes analysis, operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication etc and arranges the· information given to it.
Role of Computer:
Computer has changed the world revolutionary. It has made the world into a global village. Computer is one of the base components of information technology. Using computer we can collect and share the knowledge through Internet. Almost all the offices have computer to manage their day-by-day work.

What is the difference between hardware and software? Name different software.
Computers work through an interaction of hardware and software.
Hardware:
Hardware of a computer is a solid device like keyboard, mouse, monitor, motherboard etc.
Software:
Software refers to the instructions, or programs that tell the hardware what to do. For example operating systems, Microsoft application (MS Office) etc.
Operating System:
It is essential for a computer having operating system. For example: Windows, Linux, Unix are the operating systems.

What do understand by the term worn processing and data managing?
Word Processing:
It is a computer program, which helps us to write letters, reports and books. Hence, to type something by computers keyboard, to correct, to arrange, to amend the document, to add and delete the written portion when required is called the word processing.
Data Managing:
The information about a subject can be stored in the computer in more than one interlinked files, which may be shared in different programs. This is called "Data Managing" Addition and deletions in the data are possible.

What is internet? Internet is a useful source of knowledge any information. Discuss.
Internet is a worldwide network of computers that use common communication standard and interface to provide the physical backbone for a number of interesting applications.
·         Today internet comprises of many million computers.
·         The language used in Internet is called HTML, which is abbreviation of Hypertext Markup Language.
·         All connected computers communicate through same code.
·         It is called "protocol" whose name is TCP/IP. It is abbreviation of Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol.
·         Basically three major search services available for different tasks.
·         Directories, search engine and Meta search engine.

Discuss the role of information technology in school education.
Information Technology (IT):
The scientific method for storing, arranging information for proper use and to communicate them to others is called the information technology (IT). Computers and internet, etc are the main sources for the information technology.
Role of IT in School Education:
School education is an important aspect of human life. If from the growing age the students are familiar with computers then it will be easy for them to get maximum benefits from computer technology.
Utilizing the computers we can meet and compare the international standard of school education. There should be computer labs in schools. Students and teachers should have access to internet. For students they should get permission from their teachers to use internet for useful purposes under the supervision of their teachers.

Why Optical Fiber is more useful tool for the communication in process.
Optical fiber is a strand of glass or plastic (not thick than human hair) uses light signal to carry the information, Light signals have very high frequency so more information can be send per second over large distances without interruption and loss of information.

Which is more reliable floppy disk or a hard disk.
Hard Disk is more reliable and safe.

What is difference between RAM and ROM?
Random Access Memory (RAM):
It is based on electronics and consists of integrated circuits (ICs). It is Random Access Memory (RAM). It vanishes when the computer is switched off.
Read Only Memory (ROM):
It is based on electronics and consists of integrated circuits (ICs). It is Read Only Memory. It remains even when the computer is switched off.

THEORY
What is flow of information?
Flow of information means the transfer of the information from one place to another through different electronic and optical equipments.

What do you know about Radio Tuning Circuit?
Radio tuning circuit consists of coils of fine wire wounded on a rod which is connected to the antenna. The coils are connected to variable capacitors. The tuned circuit selects signals of only particular frequency.
It does not amplify the signals from transmitters with slightly lower and higher frequencies. The voltage rises and falls as the frequency of the received signal increases or decreases relative to the constant frequency of the oscillator.

Write down the advantages and disadvantages of Fiber Optics.
Advantages of Optical Fibers:
·         Waves of visible light has much high frequency than the frequency of radio waves so more information can be sent per second with light beam.
·         Fiber optic provides secure and reliable data transmission.
·         It is not affected by electromagnetic interference.
·         There is no noise and distortion in fiber optics.
·         Its error rate is very low.
·         It provides high quality transmission and high data transmission rate.
Disadvantages:
·         Fiber optics is difficult to install.
·         It is quite expensive.

Write a short note on the risks of the Information and Communication Technology to the society and environment.
·         Over use of computer is dangerous to health with respect to eyesight and backache.
·         Computer crime is accomplished through knowledge or use of computer technology.
·         Computers are used to steal money, goods, information and resources.
·         Hacking is unauthorized access to computers for any illegal work.

To avoid the above risks we should take care in using the computers. We should use key, ID numbers or finger print password.

What is difference between FTP and HTTP.
FTP:
FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol. It is used as a tool to efficiently uploading and downloading files on the internet.
HTTP:
HTIP is a protocol; web browsing is supported by this function. It allows user to view web page.

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Download Class Notes: Download 10th Class Physics Notes (Unit # 17) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad
Download 10th Class Physics Notes (Unit # 17) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad
Download 10th Class Physics Notes (Unit # 17) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad
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