Download 10th Class Physics Notes (Unit # 18) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad

Download 10th Class Physics Notes (Unit # 18) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad.

Very Easy, Updated & Comprehensive Notes for all types of students i.e. Average / Extra Ordinary
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Download 10th Class Physics Notes for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad
THEORY & SOLVED EXERCISE

What is difference between atomic number and atomic mass number?
·         The number of protons in a nucleus is called its atomic number. It is denoted by Z.
·         The number of nucleons in the nucleus is called Atomic Mass number. It is sum of the masses of protons and neutrons in the nucleus. It is denoted by A.

Give a symbolic representation of a nuclide.
Generally atom is represented by AXZ . It is called nuclide where X denotes element, Z is atomic number and A is atomic mass number.

What do you mean by the term radioactivity? Why some elements are radioactive but some are not?
  • The emission of radiation by unstable nuclei having atomic number greater than 82 (Z>82) is called natural radioactivity. The elements are called radioactive elements.
  • The elements with atomic number (Z<82) are stable and do not emit radiation.

How can you make radioactive elements artificially? Describe with a suitable example.
  • Artificially produced radioactive elements, by the bombardment of different particles, are called radioactive isotopes.
  • Elements having atomic number Z (1 to 82) are stable and non radioactive elements can also be changed into unstable and radioactive elements by bombarding them with protons, neutrons or alpha particles.
  • For example, when sodium-11 is bombarded with neutrons, it becomes unstable and excited. Then it de-excites with the emission of gamma rays photon.

What are the three basic radioactive decay processes and how do they differ from each other?
If an unstable parent nuclide X changes into a daughter nuclide Y with the emission of alpha particle, beta particle or gamma particle.
Alpha decay:
After Alpha decay the atomic number of parent decreases by 2 units and mass number A decreases by 4 units.
Beta decay:
After Beta decay the atomic number of parent increases by 1 unit and mass number A remains same.
Gamma decay:
The nature of element does not change. It comes back to normal state after excited state. The sign (*) shows that nucleus is in exited state.

Write the alpha decay process for 234P91. Identify the parent and daughter nuclei in this decay.
234Pa91 -------------> 230Pu89 + 4He2 + Energy

Explain whether the atomic number can increase during nuclear decay. Support your answer with an example.
  • Yes, atomic number (Z) can increase during Beta decay.
  • For example Carbon-14 gives Beta decay with Nitrogen-14. After Beta decay its atomic number increases by ' unit and mass number A remains same.

What do you understand by half life of a radioactive element?
The time during which half of the unstable nuclei disintegrate is called the half life of the sample of radioactive element.

Is radioactivity a spontaneous process? Elaborate your answer with a simple experiment.
Yes, radioactivity is spontaneous and natural process. It does not depend upon any change of physical or chemical combination.
Experiment
·         A small quantity of the radium source was placed in a hole dug in block of lead.
·         The radiations emitted from radium are passed in the space between the two poles of permanent magnet placed inside an evacuated chamber.
·         And photographic plate is placed at right angle to the direction of these rays.
·         When, after some time, the photographic plate was developed which show three separated spots.
·         This proves the existence of three different types of radiations.

What is meant by background radiations? Enlist some sources of background radiations.
Radiations present in atmosphere due to different natural radioactive substances are called background radiations.
Sources:
·         In our environment the rocks, soil, water, and air are traces of radioactive elements.
·         Our Earth also receives radiations called cosmic radiations from outer space. These radiations are high-energy radiations.
·         The cosmic radiations interact with atoms in the atmosphere to create a shower of secondary radiations.

Describe two uses of radioisotopes in medicine, industry or research?
1-Tracers:
Tracers are chemical compounds containing some quantity of radioisotope.
Tracers in Medical:
Tracers are used to explore the metabolism of chemical reactions inside the human body, animal or plant. For example, isotopes of Iodine-131 is accumulated in the thyroid gland and can be used for monitoring of thyroid functioning are used for diagnosis of goiter in thyroid gland.
Tracers in Industry:
Tracers are used to locate the wear and tear of the moving parts of the machinery. They can be used to locate the leaks in underground pipes.
Tracers in Agriculture:
The radioactive like Phophorous-32 is used as tracer to find out how well the plants are absorbing the phosphate fertilizer which are crucial to their growth.
2-Medical Treatment (Radiotherapy):
Radioisotopes are used in nuclear medicine for curing various diseases. For example radioactive Cobalt-60 is used for curing cancerous tumor and cells. The radiations kill the cells of malignant tumor in the human body.
3-Carbon Dating (Archeological and Geological uses):
It is the method of age determination of old carbon containing objects (fossils) by measuring the radioactivity of C-14 in them is called radio-carbon dating or simply carbon dating.

What are two common radiation hazards? Briefly describe the precautions that are taken against them.
Radiation Hazards:
·         Radiation burns, mainly because if beta and gamma radiations cause redness and sores on skin.
·         Radiation can cause Sterility which means inability to produce children.
·         Radiation causes genetic mutations in human being and plants. Serious deformations are resulted in newly born children.
·         Radiation cause beloved cancer (Leukemia)
·         Radiation cause blindness or contracts are formed on eye.
Precautions:
·         Sources should be handled with tongs and forceps.
·         Rubber gloves should be used and hands should be wasted carefully after experiment.
·         Thick lead containers should be used to save radioactive sources.
·         A person should never point a radioactive source.
·         Radiation sensitive areas should be avoided frequent visits.

Nuclear fusion reaction is more reliable and sustainable source of energy then nuclear fission chain reaction. Justify this statement with plausible arguments.
As the light nuclei are fused to give rise heavy nucleus in nuclear reaction. More energy is released in nuclear fusion as compared to fission reaction. More than 200 Mev energy is released in one nuclear fusion reaction. Its main fuel is hydrogen that is easily available. The main hurdle in sustaining this reaction on earth is the temperature control because very high mum is required to sustain this reaction.

A nitrogen nuclide 14N7 decays to become an oxygen nuclide by emitting an electron. Show this process with an equation.

14N7 --------> 14O8   +  0e-1  + Energy



Is it possible for an element to have different types of atoms? Explain.
Yes, an element can have different atoms with same atomic number but different mass number. These are called isotopes of the element.
For example: There are three isotopes of hydrogen called Protium, Deutrium and Tritium.

What nuclear reaction would release more energy, the fission reaction or the fusion reaction? Explain.
The nuclear fusion reaction release more energy as compared to fission nuclear reaction.
Two hundred million electron volt (200 Mev) energy is released in one reaction of fusion.

Which has more penetrating power, all alpha particle or gamma ray photon?
Gamma ray photon has the highest penetrating power, it can pass through 2 cm thick of aluminium and can be blocked by lead.

What is the difference between natural and artificial radioactivity?
Natural radioactivity:
The spontaneous and natural decay of unstable elements (Z>82) into another element with the emission of alpha, beta or gamma radiations is called natural radioactivity.
Artificial radioactivity:
The process in which the stable and unstable nuclide can be changed into radioactive by the bombardment of particles like protons, neutrons etc.

How long would you likely have to wait to watch any sample of radioactive atoms completely decay?
It is difficult to measure the time until whole of the sample decay. It is supposed to be infinite time.

Tritium 3H1 is radioactive isotope of hydrogen. It decays by emitting an electron. What is the daughter nucleus?
3H1 (Parent – Tritium) ------> 3He2 (Helium Nuclide)  +  0e-1  + Energy (Beta particle)

What information about the m of the nitrogen atom can be obtained from its nuclide 14N7? In what way atom 14N7 is different from the atom in N.
From the symbol 14N7 it is clear
Z = Atomic number, so number of protons = 7
Mass number A = sum of protons and neutrons = 14
So number of neutrons N = A-Z = 14-7 = 7
Hence it is one of the isotopes of Nitrogen. In Nitrogen atom there are 7 electons.

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Download Class Notes: Download 10th Class Physics Notes (Unit # 18) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad
Download 10th Class Physics Notes (Unit # 18) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad
Download 10th Class Physics Notes (Unit # 18) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad
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