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Download 9th Class Physics Notes (Unit # 2) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad

Download 9th Class Physics Notes (Unit # 2) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad

Very Easy, Updated & Comprehensive Notes for all types of students i.e. Average / Extra Ordinary

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Download 9th Class Physics Notes (Unit # 2) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad

SHORT QUESTIONS
[Important] Question: Differentiate between followings:
Rest and Motion:
  • A body is said to be at rest, if it does not change its position with respect to its surroundings.
  • A body is said to be in motion, if it changes its position with respect to its surroundings.
Circular Motion and Rotatory Motion:
  • Any turning as if on an axis is rotatory motion.
  • Any rotatory motion where the radius of gyration length and axis of rotation are fixed is circular motion.
  • So the main difference is that there is no fixed axis and radius restriction for rotatory motion, but there is for circular motion.
Scalars and Vectors:
·        A scalar quantity is described completely by its magnitude only. For example mass, length, time, speed, volume, work, energy, density, power, electric charge, pressure, area, temperature etc.
·        A vector quantity is described completely by magnitude and direction. For example velocity, displacement, force, momentum, torque, weight, electric potential etc.
Distance and Displacement:
Distance
Displacement
·        Length of a path between two points is called the distance between those points.
·        Distance is a scalar quantity
·        Distance is denoted by “S” and S = vt.
·        Its unit is metre (m)
·        Displacement is the shortest distance between two points which has magnitude and direction.
·        Displacement is a vector quantity.
·        Displace is denoted by “d” and d = vt
·        Its unit is metre (m)
Speed and Velocity:
Speed
Velocity
The distance covered an object in unit time is called its speed
                        Distance covered
Speed        =      -------------------------
                        Time taken

Distance    =      speed x time
S              =      vt
The rate of displacement of a body is called its velocity.
                        Displacement
Velocity     =      -------------------------
                        Time taken

v               =      d / t
d              =      vt
Speed is scalar quantity
Velocity is vector quantity
Its SI unit is meter per second (ms-1)
Its SI unit is meter per second (ms-1)
Linear Motion and Random Motion:
·        Straight line motion of a body is known as linear motion. For example a car is moving on straight and level road or aero plane flying straight in air.
·        The disordered or irregular motion of an object is called random motion. For example motion of insects and birds.
[Very Important] Question: What is Gyration Length?
A length that represents the distance in a rotating system between the point about which it is rotating and the point to or from which a transfer of energy has the maximum effect.
Question: Define Acceleration:
Acceleration is defined as the rate of change of velocity of a body.
                                Change in velocity
Acceleration       =      --------------------------
                                Time taken

                                Vf-Vi
                a      =      ------
                                   t
The SI unit of acceleration is meter per second per second (ms-2)
[Important] Question: Can a body moving at a constant speed have acceleration?
Yes, when a body is moving with constant speed, the body can have acceleration if its direction changes. For example if the body is moving along a circle with constant speed. It will have acceleration due to the change of direction at very instant.
[Important] Question: How do riders in a Ferris wheel possess translatory motion but not circular motion?
Riders in a Ferris wheel possess translatory motion because their motion is in a circle without rotation.
Question: How can vector quantities be represented graphically?
To differentiate a vector from a scalar quantity, we generally se bold letters to represent vector quantities, such as F, a, d or a bar or arrow over their symbols such as F, a, d or F.
Graphical representation:
A straight line is drawn with an arrow head at one end. The length of the line, according to some suitable scale, represents the magnitude and the arrow head gives the direction of the vector.
[Important] Question: Why vector quantities cannot be added and subtracted like scalar quantities?
The scalar quantities obey the rules of arithmetic and ordinary algebra because scalar quantities have no direction. Since vectors have magnitude as well as direction, so vectors obey the special rules of vector algebra therefore vectors are added by head to tail rule. (Vector Algebra)
Question: Which from following can be obtained from speed-time graph. Initial Speed, Final Speed, Distance covered in time and Acceleration of motion.
All above factors can be obtained from speed-time graph.
>> Question: Define Kinematics.
It is the study of motion of an object without discussing the cause of motion.

>> Question: Define Surroundings.
Surroundings are the places in its neighborhood where various objects are present.
[Important] >> Question: List types of motion
i)            Translatory motion (Linear, Random and Circular)
ii)           Rotatory motion
iii)         Vibratory motion
[Very Important] >> Question: Define Translatory motion and its types.
In translatory motion, body moves along a line without any rotation. The line may be straight or curved. It has following types:
Linear Motion:
Straight line motion of a body is called linear motion. For example car moving in straight line.
Circular Motion:
The motion of an object in a circular path is called circular motion. For example a stone tied at one end of string and whirled.
Random Motion:
The disordered or irregular motion is called random motion. For example motion of birds and insects.
[Important] >> Question: Define Rotatory Motion.
The spinning motion of a body about its axis is called rotary motion. For example the top spins about its axis passing through it and thus it possess rotatory motion.
[Important] >> Question: Define Vibratory motion.
To and fro motion of a body about its mean position is called vibratory motion. For example motion of a baby in swing.
>> Question: Mention type of motion in followings.
A ball moving vertically upward
Linear motion
A child moving down a slide
Linear motion
Movement of a player in a football ground
Random motion
The flight of a butterfly
Random motion
An athlete running in a circular track
Circular motion
The motion of a wheel
Circular motion
The motion of a cradle
Vibratory motion
[Important] >> Question: Define Position.
The term position describes the location of a place or a point with respect to some reference point called origin.
>> Question: Which is fastest animal on the earth?
Falcon can fly at a speed of 200 kmh-1. While Cheetah can run at a speed of 70kmh-1
[Very Important] >> Question: What is LIDAR gun?
A LIDAR gun is light detection and ranging speed gun. It uses the time taken by laser pulse to make a series of measurements of a vehicle’s distance from the gun. The data is then used to calculate the vehicle’s speed.
[Very Important] >> Question: Define Uniform, Variable and Average Speed.
  • A body has uniform speed if it covered equal distances in equal intervals of time however short the interval may be.
  • If a body covers unequal distances in equal interval of time, however small the intervals may be, the speed of the body is said to be variable.
  • The ratio between distance and total time taken is known as average speed.
[Very Important] >> Question: Define Uniform Velocity, Variable Velocity and Average Velocity?
  • A body has uniform velocity if it covers equal displacement in equal intervals of time however short the interval may be.
  • If speed or direction changes with time then the velocity is said to be variable.
  • The ratio between displacement and time is known as average velocity.
[Very Important] >> Question: Define Uniform Acceleration, Variable Acceleration and Positive & Negative Acceleration.
  • A body has uniform acceleration if it has equal changes in velocity in equal intervals of time however short the interval may be.
  • A body has variable acceleration if it has not equal changes in velocity in equal intervals of time however short the interval may be.
  • Acceleration of a body is positive when its velocity is increasing and negative when its velocity is decreasing.
[Important] >> Question: Define Graph, Variables, Independent quantity and dependent quantity.
  • Graph is a pictorial way of presenting information about the relation between various quantities.
  • The quantities between which a graph is plotted are called variables.
  • One of the quantities is called independent quantity.
  • The value of which varies with the independent quantity is called the dependent quantity.
>> Question: What is the purpose of distance time graph?
It is useful to represent the motion of objects using graphs.
>> Question: Define Gravitational Acceleration.
The acceleration of freely falling bodies is called gravitational acceleration. It is denoted by g. Its value is approximately 10ms-2.
[Very Important] >> Write equation of motion under gravity.
i)      Vf = Vi + gt                ii)     h = Vit + ½ gt2           iii)    2gh = Vf2 – Vi2

LONG QUESTIONS

[Very Important] >> Question: Derive the First Equation of Motion?
Let a car is moving with initial velocity (vi). After time (t) its velocity becomes (vf). As the car is moving with uniform acceleration therefore its acceleration (a) will be equal to the average acceleration (aav):
                        Change in Velocity
a              =      --------------------
                             Total Time

                        Vf – Vi
a              =      -------
                             t

at             =      Vf – Vi
at + Vi       =      Vf

OR

Vf              =      Vi + at

Second Method:


[Very Important] >> Question: Derive the Second Equation of Motion?
A body is moving with initial Velocity (Vi) and after time (t) its velocity becomes (Vf). Then to calculate the total distance (S) covered in time (t):
Distance    =      Average Velocity x Time
S              =      Vav x t --------------------------------------- (i)
We know that
                        Vi + Vf
Vav            =      --------
                            2
So, Putting this value in equation (i)

Vi + Vf
S              =      -------- x t
                            2
And we know that Vf = Vi + at
So,
Vi + Vi + at
S              =      -------------    x   t
                            2

2Vi + at
S              =      -------------    x   t
                            2

2Vit + at2
S              =      -----------
                            2

2Vit           at2
S              =      ----   +              ---- 
                        2              2
                                1
S              =      Vit + --- at2
                                2
Second Method:
       
[Very Important] >> Question: Derive the Third Equation of Motion?
A body is moving with initial velocity (vi) and after time (t) its velocity becomes (vf) then distance covered by it is given by:
                        (Vi + Vf)
S              =      ---------- x t -------------------------------- (i)
                              2
We know that
Vf              =      Vi + at
OR
                        Vf – Vi
t       =      -------
                            a
Putting the value of t in equation (i)
                        (Vi + Vf)                     (Vf - Vi)
S              =      ---------            x         ---------
                             2                              a
2aS           =      (Vi + Vf) x (Vf - Vi)
2as           =      Vf2 – Vi2
Second Method:


=*=*=*=*= 

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Download Class Notes: Download 9th Class Physics Notes (Unit # 2) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad
Download 9th Class Physics Notes (Unit # 2) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad
Download 9th Class Physics Notes (Unit # 2) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad
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