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Download 8th Class General Science Notes (Unit # 5) for Islamabad Model Schools & Colleges

Download 8th Class General Science Notes (Unit # 5) for Islamabad Model Schools & Colleges

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Download 8th Class General Science Notes (Unit # 5) for Islamabad Model Schools & Colleges


SHORT QUESTIONS

Define the followings:
Matter:
Anything that has weight and occupies space is called matter. Matter is build up of one or more of the three types of elementary particles i.e., atoms, molecules or ions.
Molecule:
When two or more atoms combine a much bigger particle, known as molecule is obtained.
Ion:
Some substances are made up of charged particles called ions.
Cations:
Positively charged ions are called cations.
Anions:
Negatively charged ions are called anions.
Element:
An element is a substance that is made up of one type of atoms.
Mixture:
A mixture is a substance made by combining two or more different materials in such a way that no chemical reaction occurs.
Compound:
A compound is a substance that results from a combination of two or more different chemical elements
Physical Change:
A change which is easily reversible is called physical change.
Chemical Change:
A change which is not easily reversible is called chemical change.
Reactant:
Reactants are substances that react together to start a chemical reaction. 
Products:
Products are substances that are produced in the chemical reaction.
Chemical Equation:
A chemical equation uses chemical symbols to show that what happens during a chemical reaction
Coefficient:
Coefficient gives the number of molecules (or atoms) involved in the reaction.
Exothermic Process:
Exothermic reaction is a chemical reaction that liberates heal or energy when it is started.
Endothermic Process:
Endothermic reaction is chemical reaction that requires the addition of heat and energy in order to start.



Distinguish between:
A compound and an element:
·        A compound is a substance that results from a combination of two or more different chemical elements
·        An element is a substance that is made up of one type of atoms.
A molecule and an atom:
·        When two or more atoms combine a much bigger particle, known as molecule is obtained.
·        An atom e.g., gold is the smallest particle of an element which can take part in chemical reactions.
Physical and Chemical change:
·        A change which is easily reversible is called physical change.
·        A change which is not easily reversible is called chemical change.
Reactants and products:
·        Reactants are substances that react together to start a chemical reaction. 
·        Products are substances that are produced in the chemical reaction.
Combination and decomposition reaction:
·        A reaction in which a single product is formed from two or more reactant is known as a combination reaction.
·        A reaction in which a single reactant breaks down into two or more simpler products is known as decomposition reaction.
Exothermic and endothermic reaction:
·        Exothermic reaction is a chemical reaction that liberates heal or energy when it is started.
·        Endothermic reaction is chemical reaction that requires the addition of heat and energy in order to start.

What is a balanced equation?
In a balanced chemical equation, the total number of atoms of each element on the reactant side is equal to the number of atoms on the product side.

What does a chemical equation represent?
A chemical equation is the symbolic representation of a chemical change.
Write balanced chemical equations for each of the following:
Not Balanced
Balanced
Ca     +      O2     ------->      CaO
2Ca   +      O2     ------->      2CaO
S      +      O2     ------->      SO2
S      +      O2     ------->      2SO2
N2     +      O2     ------->      NO2
N2     +      O2     ------->      2NO2
Hg    +      O2     ------->      HgO
2Hg   +      O2     ------->      2HgO
Na    +      Cl2    ------->      NaCl
2Na   +      Cl2    ------->      2NaCl
Cu     +      O2     ------->      CuO
2Cu   +      O2     ------->      2CuO
H2     +      Cl2    ------->      HCl
H2     +      Cl2    ------->      2HCl
N2     +      H2     ------->      NH3
N2     +      3H2   ------->      2NH3
Zn     +      O2     ------->      ZnO
Zn     +      O2     ------->      ZnO
C      +      O2     ------->      CO
C      +      O2     ------->      CO
Determine what types of reaction each of the following reaction is:
(a)    2AgCl + light      --------->   2Ag + Cl2           =      Decomposition
(b)    2Al + 3Cl2          --------->   2AlCl3                        =      Recombination
(c)    Hg2S + heat       --------->   Hg + S8             =      Decomposition
(d)    Li + O2              --------->   Li2O                  =      Recombination

State Law of conservation of mass.
This law states that “Matter is neither created nor destroyed during a chemical reaction but changes from one from to another.”

Why is Antino Lavoisier famous for?
Antoine Lavoisier, discovered the law of conservation of mass by showing that during a chemical reaction that matter is neither created nor destroyed during a chemical reaction but changes from one from to another.

Write short notes on:
Chemical reaction:
A reaction in which two or more elements join to form a new product is called chemical reaction. It is not easily reversible.
Decomposition reaction:
A chemical reaction in which a compound splits into two or more different elements or compounds on heating.
Chemical equation:
A chemical equation uses chemical symbols to show that what happens during a chemical reaction
Combination reaction:
A reaction in which a single product is formed from two or more reactant is known as a combination reaction.

LONG / EXTENSIVE QUESTIONS




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Download Class Notes: Download 8th Class General Science Notes (Unit # 5) for Islamabad Model Schools & Colleges
Download 8th Class General Science Notes (Unit # 5) for Islamabad Model Schools & Colleges
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