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Download 9th Class Chemistry Notes (Unit # 8) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad

Download 9th Class Chemistry Notes (Unit # 8) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad

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Download 9th Class Chemistry Notes (Unit # 8) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad

REVIEW QUESTION

In a group the reactivity of metals with oxygen increases? Give example.
In a group the reactivity of metals with oxygen increases. For example, alkali metals on exposure to air show an increase in affinity for oxygen as we move down the group.
Lithium forms normal oxide.
4Li + O2 ----------------> 2Li2O
Sodium forms per oxide.
2Na + O2 ----------------> Na2O2
K, Rb and Cs form super oxide.
K + O2 ----------------> KO2

In periods as we move from left to right, reactivity of metals with oxygen decreases. Explain.
In periods as we move from left to rig0ht, reactivity of metals with oxygen decreases.
Examples:
·        In the third period sodium readily reacts with oxygen to form sodium peroxide, at room temperature.
·        Mg reacts with oxygen only on ignition.
·        Al reacts with oxygen on heating. It is superficially oxidized at room temperature to
·        form Al2O3 layer which serves as a protective covering that prevents further reaction.

Which element is more metallic Mg or Al? Explain.
Mg is more metallic than Al.

What is the importance of Mg?
·        Magnesium has relatively low density and it is used in making light weight alloy with aluminum that are used for making frames of automobiles, air craft and space ship, cameras etc.
·        Since magnesium burns brilliantly, it is used in photo flash guns.
·        Mg(OH)2 is called milk of magnesia and is commonly used as antacid.

Arrange the following in order of increasing acidic strength.
HF < HCl < HBr < HI

Can F2 oxidize air the halides ions to free halogen?
·        Yes, F2 can oxidize all the halides ions to free halogen.
·        Oxidizing power of F2 is the highest and that of 12 is lowest.
·        Due to the relative strength as oxidizing agent, it is possible for a free halogen to oxidize the ion of halogen next to it in the group.
·        This means F2 can oxidize all the halide ions to free halogen.
For example:
F2 + 2KCl ----------------> 2KF + Cl2
F2 + 2KBr ----------------> 2KF + Br2
F2 + 2NaI ----------------> 2NaF + I2

Arrange the following oxides in order of decreasing basic character. BeO, CaO, MgO, SrO
SrO > GaO > MgO > BeO

Rank the each set of elements in order of increasing metallic character. (a) AI, Na, Mg (b) Na, L1, K
a)     Na < Mg < Al
b)     Li < Na < K

Which of the following displacement reaction will not occur? Give reason.
(a)    Cl2 + 2NaF2 ----------------> 2NaCl + F2
Displacement reaction will not occur because the reactivity or halogens decrease down the group. Thus, the order of decreasing power oxidizing is:
F2 > Cl2 > Br2 > I2
Therefore Cl2 cannot oxidized F2.
(b)    Br2 + 2KI ----------------> 2KBr + I2
Displacement reaction will occur because the reactivity of halogens decrease down the group. Thus, the order of decreasing power oxidizing is:
F2 > Cl2 > Br2 > I2
Therefore Br2 can oxidized Br2.
(c)    I2 + 2KBr ----------------> 2KI + Br2
Displacement reaction will not occur because the reactivity of halogens decrease down the group. Thus, the order of decreasing power oxidizing is:
F2 > Cl2 > Br2 > I2
Therefore h cannot oxidized Br2.

Give some important applications of platinum.
·        Platinum is widely used as catalyst.
·        For example, 100% pure sulphuric acid is prepared by the contact process. In this process platinum is used as catalyst.
·        Platinum is used as electrode as a part of hydrogen electrode and in fuel cells.
·        The converters in automobile contain platinum for complete combustion of CO and hydrocarbons.
·        A platinum compound called cis-platin is useful as an anti cancer agent.

Identify the position of potassium and calcium in the periodic table.
·        Potassium is group I-A element known as alkali metal.
·        Potassium has general electron configuration ns1 in its valence shell.
·        Calcium is group II-A element is known as alkaline earth metal.
·        Calcium has general electron configuration ns2 in its valence shell.


What is aqua regia?
Gold and platinum react only with aqua regia. Aqua regia is a mixture of 3 parts by volume of conc. HCl and one part by volume of conc. HNO3.

Why it is advisable, not to pick sodium metal with fingers.
·        Sodium reacts violently with water (moisture of fingers) often catching fire and exploding.
·        This reaction produces sodium hydroxide. a strong and caustic base.

Arrange the following elements in order of increasing non-metallic character.
Al < Si < P

Design an experiment to show that iron is more reactive than copper.
·        When iron is added to copper sulphate solution the copper is displaced by the iron.
·        Copper metal cannot be used to displace iron because in reactivity series copper lies below iron.

Design an experiment to differentiate between Cl- and I-.
Materials Need:
     Test tubes, glass rods.
     Chemical such as dilute H2SO4, conc. H2SO4, NH4OH
     Salts containing Cl- and I-.
Experiment:
     Take small quantity of each salt in separate dry test tubes. Add few drops of dilute H2SO4 solution. Note the test tube in which a gas evolves. Test each gas as follows.
     Take small quantities of remaining salts in dry test tubes and this time add few drops of concentrated H2SO4 heat, and analyze as follows.
     Note the salt that gives colourless gas having pungent odour.  Test this gas with a glass rod dipped in liquid NH3 or NH4OH solution. It will give dense white fumes. It must be HCl. This indicates Cl- ion. Note the salt that gives violet fumes having pungent odour. Test these vapours with starch paper, it will turn blue. This indicate I- ion.

THEORY

When gold or platinum ornaments are placed in e moist air, they do not rust why?
The metals gold, silver and platinum are not affected by air. Therefore these are not rusted. More over they are durable and keep permanently, their metallic luster. They are not oxidized by environment.

Give the uses of copper?
It is widely used for making electrical cables, ornaments, coins and alloys such as brass, bronze etc.
Can copper metal be used to displace iron or other metals?
No, copper metal cannot be used to displace iron because in reactivity series copper lies below iron.

Write the uses of iodine in the daily life?
Iodine is an essential element for thyroid gland and an important disinfectant. It is used for making tincture iodine. Commercially it is prepared by the oxidation of iodide salt by C12.
Can Iodine displace Cl2 or Br2 from their salts?
Iodine (I2) can not displace Cl2 or Br2 form their salts because in case of halogens oxidizing power of F2 is the highest and that of I2 is lowest.

What does periodic table tell you about reactivity of elements?
In groups as we move from top to bottom reactivity of metal with oxygen increases. In periods as we move from left to right reactivity of metal wilh oxygen decreases

Explain the electropositive character of the metals?
Chemically the property of an element that makes it a metal is its ability to lose valence electrons to form metal cation. The tendency of a metal to lose electrons is called electro positivity.

Why non-metals are electronegative?
·        The tendency of a non metals to accept an electron to form an anion is called its non-metallic or electronegative character.
·        The elements having high electron affinity or high electronegativity have higher tendency to gain electrons and form negative ion.
·        The elements in the upper right hand portion of the periodic table are electronegative or non-metallic ill nature.
·        For example, fluorine, oxygen and phosphorus are non-metallic in nature. The  electronegative character decreases as we go down in a group.

What do you know about Strontium-90?
Strontium-90, a radioactive Isotope, is a major product of an atomic bomb explosion. Constant exposure of the body to high energy radiations emitted by the Sr-90 can lead to anaemia, leukemia and other chronic illnesses

What do you mean by inertness of noble metals?
·        Some metals such as copper, silver, gold and platinum are relatively difficult to oxidize.
·        Therefore, these metals are often called noble metals.
·        Gold and Platinum exist mostly as free elements in nature.
·        Copper and Silver exist in both free and combined states.
·        All active metals react with HCl but noble metals do not react with HCl.
·        Copper and silver react with strong oxidizing agents such as conc. HNO3 and HclO4.


What is Rolled Gold?
Rolled gold is a thin layer of gold alloy that is bonded onto brass or nickel-silver alloy.

What do you know about microprocessor silicon chip?
·        Computers exist because of an amazing invention called the integrated circuit known as the silicon chip or just chip.
·        Chips are microprocessors which can perform all the function of a computer.
·        These are so small that one will fit on the tip of your finger.
·        A chip is made from a very thin flake of an element called silicon.
·        Chips contain millions of working parts that are so small that they can be seen only with a microscope

What are halogens?
·        The elements in group VII-A are called halogens.
·        The name halogen is derived from the Greek words “halous” meaning salt and “gen” meaning former.
·        Halogens include fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine and astatine. Astatine is a radioactive element.
·        All halogens are reactive non-metals.
·        They all exist as diatomic molecular substances

What are Hallides?
All the halogens react with metals to form salts called halides.


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Download Class Notes: Download 9th Class Chemistry Notes (Unit # 8) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad
Download 9th Class Chemistry Notes (Unit # 8) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad
Download 9th Class Chemistry Notes (Unit # 8) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad
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