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Download 8th Class Geography Notes (Unit-3) for Islamabad Model Schools and Colleges

Download 8th Class Geography Notes (Unit-3) for Islamabad Model Schools and Colleges

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Download 8th Class Geography Notes (Unit-3) for Islamabad Model Schools and Colleges


SHORT QUESTIONS

What are the causes of the Ocean Currents?
i)            Winds                           
ii)           Variation in Temperature of Ocean
iii)         Variations in Salts Concentration in Ocean Water
iv)         Rotation of the Earth
v)           Continental Margins

What is the nature of the Ocean Currents?
Cold Currents:
Currents moving along the western coasts of the continents. i.e. California currents
Warm Currents:
Warn Currents move from warm equatorial regions to the cold polar area. i.e. Gulf Stream and Brazil currents.

What cause the Tides?
·        Tides are the rise & fall of the sea levels due to gravitational pull of moon and sun.
·        Spring Tides are produced by the combined force of sun and moon at the time of new and full moon.
·        Neap Tides are produced when sun and moon are at right angles to each other e.g. at first and last quarter of the moon.

What are the Spring and Neap Tides?
·        Spring Tides are produced by the combined force of sun and moon at the time of new and full moon.
·        Neap Tides are produced when sun and moon are at right angles to each other e.g. at first and last quarter of the moon.

Differentiate among the Waves, Currents and Tides.
  • Waves are the sea surface disturbances moving in the form of ridges.
  • Currents are the regular channels of flowing water on the surface of oceans.
  • Tides are the rise and fall of sea levels.



LONG QUESTIONS

Describes the main characteristics of the major oceans.
Pacific Ocean:
·        It is the largest ocean.
·        Its area is 156 million square kilometers.
·        It is located in North and South America.
·        Its average depth is 4000 meters.
·        Its deepest part is Mariana trench which is 10,924 meters deep.
Atlantic Ocean:
·        It is second largest ocean.
·        Its area is 77 million square kilometers.
·        It is located in Europe and Africa
·        Its average depth is 4000 meters.
·        Its deepest point is Puerto Rico trench which is 8600 meters deep.
Indian Ocean:
·        It is third largest ocean.
·        Its area is 69 million square kilometers
·        It is located between Africa, Asia and Australia.
·        Its average depth is 3900 meters.
·        Its deepest point is Java Trench which is 7258 meters deep.
Southern Ocean:
·        It is fourth largest ocean.
·        Its area is 20 million square kilometers.
·        It is located between 60 degree southern latitude.
·        Its average depth is 4500 meters
·        Its deepest point is 7235 meters deep.
Arctic Ocean:
·        It is fifth largest ocean.
·        Its area is 14 million square kilometers.
·        It is located around north pole.
·        Its average depth is 1200 meters
·        Its deepest point is Fram Basin which is 4665 meters deep.


What is a sea? State some important characteristics of live major seas.
The sea is expanse of salt water that covers most of the earth's surface and surrounds its land masses.
Mediterranean Sea:
·        It is located between Europe, Africa and Asia.
·        Its area is 2.5 million square kilometers.
·        Its average depth is 1500 meters. 
Caribbean Sea:
·        It is located by West Indies Islands in the North and East.
·        Its area is 2.7 million square kilometers.
·        Its average depth is 2,647 meters.
Black sea:
·        It is land locked sea, located in the North of Turkey.
·        Its area is 436,400 square kilometers.
·        Its average depth is 1253 meters.
Arabian Sea:
·        It is located in the north western part of the Indian ocean.
·        Saudi Arabia, Iran, Pakistan and India are its bordering regions.
·        Its area is 3,862,000 square kilometers.
·        Its average depth is 2734 meters.
Caspian Sea:
·        It is the largest water body.
·        Its area is 371,000 square kilometers.
·        It is surrounded by Russia, Azerbaijan, Iran, Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan.
·        Its average depth is 211 meters.

Write in detail about the relief of ocean floor.
Continental Shelf:
·        It is seaward extension of the plains and is shallow region of the ocean.
·        It is gently sloping towards the ocean.
·        Its edge occurs at an average depth of 135 meters.
Continental Slope:
·        Towards the margin of the Continental shelf, slope begins to descend quickly this is the beginning of continental slope.
·        The base of this slope occurs at a depth of 2000 meters.
Continental Rise:
·        Continental rises are gently sloping, smooth surfaced features along the bottom end of the continental slope.
Abyssal Plain:
·        Beyond the end of the continental rise, lies the underwater plain known as abyssal plain.
·        It is usually found at the depth of 3000 to 6000 meters.
Mid Oceanic Ridge:
·        Mid oceanic ridges are the underwater mountain chains formed along spreading plate boundaries.
Oceanic Trenches:
·        Oceanic trenches are elongated depressions and deepest parts of the oceans.

·        Mariana Trench is the deepest oceanic trench with a depth of 10,911 meters. 

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Download Class Notes: Download 8th Class Geography Notes (Unit-3) for Islamabad Model Schools and Colleges
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