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Download 8th Class Geography Notes (Unit-4) for Islamabad Model Schools and Colleges

Download 8th Class Geography Notes (Unit-4) for Islamabad Model Schools and Colleges

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Download 8th Class Geography Notes (Unit-4) for Islamabad Model Schools and Colleges


What are flash and Riverine floods?
Flash Floods:
Flash flood is a sudden inundation of a normally dry area due to heavy rain or a dam/levee failure.
Riverine Flooding:
Riverine floods are caused by spreading of river water out of its normal limits.

Give measures to prevent floods.
·        Construction of flood control dams, dikes and levees along the river channels.
·        Plantation of trees on steep slopes.
·        Provision of better drainage facilities in urban areas.

Which safety measures can help to save lives during an Earthquake?
·        Inside homes, find some safe place like door frames, table or bench.
·        If intending to leave home do not use elevator.
·        Outside homes, stay away from the buildings, walls or power lines.

Describe effects of floods in Pakistan.
·        Heavy Floods hit Pakistan in August 2013.
·        118 people were killed and 812 injured.
·        Flood damaged 27,847 houses and 412,083 acres of ready crops.
·        544439 people were affected by this flood.

Mention some impacts of cyclones.
·        Basic affects of the cyclones include heavy rains, stormy winds and large storm surges.
·        Rains from the cyclones cause mud slides or landslides in hilly areas.
·        Cyclonic rain disrupts transportation and communication system along with destruction of infrastructure.


What are the various types of volcanic materials that cause widespread destruction?
·        Lava flowing out of a vent of a volcano moves slowly upto long distances.
·        Hot dry rocky fragments coming out of a vent of the volcano.
·        During explosive volcanic activity Tephra (rocky material) moves very high into air.
·        Volcanic Ash and lava are also blown into air during an explosive volcanic eruption.
·        Gases coming out of a volcano enter into the atmosphere.

What is a landslide? Discuss the measures to mitigate the landslide affects.
Landslide is down slope movement of large masses of rock and soil under the gravitational pull of the earth.
Measures to mitigate:
·        Construction must be discouraged in landslide areas.
·        Surface drainage may be controlled.
·        Retaining walls may be constructed along steep slopes to enhance stability of the slope.

What is desertification? Discuss the measures to check desertification in Pakistan.
Desertification is the process by which soil become infertile.
·        Over use of soil must be stopped
·        Crop rotation should be ensured.
·        Population increase must be controlled.

·        Expansion of settlements should not be done at the cost of vegetative cover and cultivable land.



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Download Class Notes: Download 8th Class Geography Notes (Unit-4) for Islamabad Model Schools and Colleges
Download 8th Class Geography Notes (Unit-4) for Islamabad Model Schools and Colleges
Download 8th Class Geography Notes (Unit-4) for Islamabad Model Schools and Colleges
Download Class Notes
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