November 2016


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SHORT QUESTIONS

What is air pollution?
Due to human actions and activities, air becomes dirty and smoky which is called air pollution. It is not fit for breathing and causes different respiratory diseases.

Write a short note on water pollution.
The change of physical, chemical and biological properties of water is called water pollution. It makes water poisonous. It also causes different diseases.

How noise pollution affects our life, Explain briefly.
·         It is slow poisoning for us.
·         It has psychological impacts i.e. aggressive mode, anger and discomfort of sleep.
·         It can cause deafness, hypertension, headache, increased heartbeat, stress and tension.
LONG QUESTION

What do you mean by an Environmental Problem?
·         Addition or change in the environment causes environmental problems.
·         These problems are very dangerous for health.
·         There are two major types of environmental problems.
o   Pollution includes soil pollution, water pollution, air pollution, noise pollution etc.
o   Global warming is the rapid increase of earth's temperature.

Highlight various causes of Environmental Problems?
Various environmental problems and their causes are as under:
Cause of Air Pollution:
  • Volcanic actions
  • Forest fires
  • Smoke of Vehicles and Factories
  • Burning of coal and other organic products.
  • Power Stations.
Cause of Water Pollution:
  • Polluted water of Industries
  • Sewage water.
  • Soil Erosion
  • Landslides
  • Fertilizers
  • Leakage of gasoline and septic tanks
Cause of Noise Pollution:
  • All kinds of vehicles
  • Nearby Airports
  • Nearby Industries
  • Televisions and Music Systems
Cause of Soil Pollution:
  • Chemicals
  • Agricultures wastes and fertilizers
  • Nuclear wastes which is dumped into soil.

Describe the causes of Global Warming and evaluate its impact on life.
Global warming is the increase in normal atmospheric temperature.
Causes:
  • Increase in greens house gases.
  • Cutting of forests and less plantation
  • Burning of fossil fuels.
  • Use of Chlorofloro Carbons (CFCs)
Impacts:

  • The average temperature of earth is increasing continuously.
  • Glaciers are melting rapidly increasing the levels of seas.
  • More evaporation will result in more rains and floods.
  • In some areas, there will be no rain and no cultivation.
  • Some diseases will spread.

8th Class Geography Notes for Islamabad Schools and Colleges


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SHORT QUESTIONS


Write a short note on GPS.
·        It is a location system based on constellation of 24 satellites around earth at a height of 11000 Km.
·        It is widely used by the civilians and defence people to locate exact location of the objects.

What modern techniques are currently in use by the geographers?
·        Remote sensing.
·        Geographical Information System (GIS).
·        Aerial Photographs.
·        Satellites and their images.
·        Geographical Positioning System.
·        Computers.

Explain the usefulness of computers in geography.
·        Computers can generate multiple overlays that provide important clues about correlative factors affecting the environment.
·        Land use patterns, atmospheric patterns, population demerits, rapid development of spatial techniques are the things and studies that is done by the computers.

Write note on computer based models in geography.
·        Computers can generate multiple overlays that provide important clues about correlative factors affecting the environment.
·        Land use patterns, atmospheric patterns, population demerits, rapid development of spatial techniques are the things and studies that is done by the computers.

Name the tools used in remote sensing and GPS.
Components of GPS:
i)      Satellite
ii)     Ground Control Station
iii)    GPS receivers or units

Components of Remote Sensing:
i)      Cameras
ii)     Multiple scanners
iii)    Hyper spectral instruments


LONG QUESTION

Define Remote Sensing and elaborate how it works?
Remote sensing is sensing something from distance without physically touching it.
How it works:
·        It involves the detection of different electromagnetic radiations, which are being reflected and emitted or discharged from any understudy object on the Earth's surface.
·        This is followed by processing, analyzing and applying of information.

What is GIS? Explains the components of GIS in detail.
·        It is a tool that allows geographers and scientists from other disciplines to visualize data in several different ways in order to see patterns and relationship in a given area or subject.
·        These patterns generally appear on maps.
·        Geography means real-world (earth) where we live.
·        Information is facts, figures, statistics, data and information system means computer technology and its support infrastructure.
Components of GPS:
i)      Satellite
ii)     Ground Control Station
iii)    GPS receivers or units

Aerial photographs are an important tool of geographers. Explain.
·        A photograph taken from an aeroplane using a camera is termed as an aerial photograph.
·        Geographers take a lot of help from these photographs while studying the function, composition, operation, properties etc. of different objects.


8th Class Geography Notes for Islamabad Schools and Colleges


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SHORT QUESTIONS

Give reasons of underdevelopment of Pakistan briefly.
·        High population and less resources
·        Agriculture is not as per standards of developed countries.
·        Unemployment
·        Political instability

Enlist economic problems of under development.
·        Low per capita income
·        Low standard agriculture
·        Rapid population increase
·        Unemployment
·        Non utilization of natural resources
·        Lack of technology and modern techniques.

Identify the social issues that promote development.
·        Good communication means
·        Justice/social justice
·        Economic justice
·        Well established infrastructure

Highlight the difference between development and under-development.
·        The term 'development' generally means all those processes and ways by which improvement in the people's lives takes place.
·        Non-availability or lesser availability of the resources such as education, health facilities to the public, lower standards of life, lesser awareness of rights and duties is called underdevelopment.

Explain the Human Development Index (HDI) evolved by the United Nations.
Following factors make a country’s HDI:
i)            Social factor i.e. Gross Domestic product (GDP)
ii)           Two social factors i.e. Literacy Rate & Life expectancy.


LONG QUESTION


Discuss the difference between development and underdevelopment.
·        The term 'development' generally means all those processes and ways by which improvement in the people's lives takes place.
·        Non-availability or lesser availability of the resources such as education, health facilities to the public, lower standards of life, lesser awareness of rights and duties is called underdevelopment.


Write a note on the geographical factors which promote development.
·        Moderate climate condition.
·        Good geographical location.
·        Availability of minerals and energy resources like oil, gas & electricity etc.
·        Lesser or controlled population.

What are the social and political problems of underdeveloped areas?
Social Problems:
·        The unfair wealth distribution.
·        Brain Drain (the outgoing of the skilled and qualified class).
·        Illiteracy.
·        Law and order situation.
Political Problems:
·        Lack of policy and decision making
·        Political instability
·        Long term dictatorships and military rule.


8th Class Geography Notes for Islamabad Schools and Colleges


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SHORT QUESTIONS

Apart from religion, which factor has contributed most to close relationship between Pakistan and Middle East?
·        Pakistan enjoys very friendly relation with all Middle East countries.
·        Pakistan supported these countries at international level.
·        Many Pakistani immigrants working in these countries.
What is a Special Economic Zone?
·        A special economic zone is a geographical region that is designated by the government to boost up, employment by establishing industry and undertaking trade.
·        With no taxation involved a SEZ manufacturers goods at globally competitive prices.
Which Chinese city is joined with Gilgit via Khunjrab Pass?
Kashghar city is joined with Gilgit via Khunjerab Pass.
Which city of Iran is joined with Pakistan both by rail and road.
Zahidan (Iran) is joined with Quetta (Pakistan) by rail route and road.

LONG QUESTION

Write a brief account of Middle East region highlighting its Economic Characteristics.
·        It is the western part of Asia.
·        It includes Afghanistan, Iran, Turkey and all the Arab countries.
·        The region is well known for its oil reserves.
·        All the Arab oil producing countries have, millions of immigrants working there.
Write an account of relations between Pakistan and middle east.
·        Pakistan enjoys very friendly relation with all Middle East countries.
·        Pakistan supported these countries at international level.
·        Many Pakistani immigrants working in these countries.
·        These immigrants serve Pakistan by sending foreign exchange.
Write a note on possible development of communication links between Pakistan and China.
·        Karakoram Highway joining is a great communication link.
·        Gawadar port will also be a strong communication link.
·        Kashghar is an important freight terminal.
·        Both the countries have agreed to set up a joint venture to do a feasibility study of rail link.
Briefly highlight the strategic importance of Pakistan with regard to neighboring regions.
·        Pakistan is located at the center of Asian Economic growth.
·        It has the potential to become regional hub for trade, energy and transport.
·        Pakistan can provide-land and sea routes to India, Middle East and Central Asia to trade

·        Central Asia is land locked region, Pakistan can provide them access through sea.

8th Class Geography Notes for Islamabad Schools and Colleges


DOWNLOAD THESE NOTES IN PDF FORMAT

SHORT QUESTIONS

Which region receives more rainfall (a) Monsoon or (b) Steppe?
The Monsoon region receives more rainfall.
Name the region which gets rainfall throughout the year.
The Tropical rainforest region gets rainfall throughout the year.
Name 5 countries of the monsoon region.
Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Myanmar and China.
Which region has heavy vegetation growth?
The Monsoon region has heavy vegetation growth.

LONG QUESTIONS

Describe the 3 major regions of the world in terms of climate.
i)       Tropical Rainforest Region:
·         Here the sun always rises and sets at the same time.
·         So, it always gets a 12 hours day and 12 hours night.
ii)      Monsoon Region:
·         In summer, this region gets up heated.
·         This results in low pressure and attracts moist-cloudy winds from sea.
iii)     Tropical Desert Region:
·         Here, climate is hot and dry.
·         The temperature is high in day.
·         Night is pleasant for few hours.
Write a brief account of the Mediterranean Region.
·         It is found on Western margins of the continents.
·         It's important lands are:
o   Southern parts of Spain, France, Italy, Greece
o   Western parts of Turkey
o   Northern coast of Africa.
·         The climate is mild winters with rains and warmer summer with no rains.
·         Natural vegetation and goats are found here.
High light the relationship between climate and human activities in any three regions studied.
i)       Tundra Region:
·         The climate is very cold here.
·         The inhabitants are called Eskimos.
·         They hunt animals and fish.
·         They have trained dogs to drag their sledges on snow.
ii)      Monsoon Region:
·         There are heavy rains in summer.
·         Rice, cotton and sugarcane are grown here.
·         Mangoes, Bananas and Coconuts are grown here.
iii)     The Steppes Region:
·         The climate is hot in summer and cold in winter.

·         Cereals are produce here like wheat, oats, barley, maize, cotton and Tobacco etc.


8th Class Geography Notes for Islamabad Schools and Colleges

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