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Download 10th Class Computer Science Notes (Unit-09) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad

Download 10th Class Computer Science Notes (Unit-9) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad

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Download 10th Class Computer Science Notes (Unit-9) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad


THEORY

Question: Explain the importance of problem definition in computer with some suitable example.
·        Sometimes verbal statement of the objective is enough.
·        But sometimes it is necessary to write objective with some other factors.
·        To define a problem, one should know the inputs and desired outputs of the program.
Example:
How will you find the average of three numbers?
Problem Definition:
The statement “to find the average of three numbers” defines the problem.
Analyzing the Problem:
i)            Do you know how to find the average of numbers?
ii)           Is the solution is possible on computer?
iii)         Can you plan to solve the problem on computer?

Question: Describe the various steps necessary to solve a problem.
Problem Identification Stage:
i)      Defining the Problem (Knowing objectives of problem)
ii)     Analyzing the Problem (Understanding the problem)
Planning Stage:
i)      Developing Algorithm (Step by Step problem solving procedure)
ii)     Flow Charting (Pictorial view of algorithm)
iii)    Writing Pseudo-code (Writing algorithm in simple language)
Coding and Testing Stage:
i)      Writing the Program (Converting algorithm into programming language)
ii)     Testing & Debugging the Program (Testing & Removing Errors)
iii)    Running the Program (Using the Program)
Implementing & Documenting Stage:
i)      Implementing the Program (Placing program into operation)
ii)     Documenting the Program (Describing inputs, outputs & procedures)

Question: What is an algorithm? What are the characteristics necessary for a set of instructions to qualify as an algorithm?
  • After defining and analyzing the problem, a programmer develop algorithm to solve a problem.
  • Algorithm is a complete procedure that describes the logic of a program.
Characteristics to qualify as an algorithm:
i)            Each and every step should be precise and clear.
ii)           Each step should be performed in a finite time.
iii)         Steps should not be repeated infinitely
iv)         The desired result should be obtained after the algorithm terminates.

Question: Write the algorithm for the conversion of temperature from Celsius scale to Fahrenheit scale.
*** Do with the help of teacher and do as many examples as you can.

Question: What is a flow chart? What are its advantages?
A flowchart is the pictorial view that illustrates the algorithm.

Advantages:
i)            Flow charts are the best method for expressing what the computer is going to do.
ii)           Flow chart helps us in planning work in an organized manner.
iii)         It demonstrates clearly the logical flow of the computer program.
iv)         Flow chart can help the different persons. i.e. one who is running the program and one who is reviewing the program.

Question: Describe four symbols used in flow chart.

Flow Line:
It is a line with an arrow head.
It represents the flow of control between various symbols.
Terminal Symbol:
It is oval in shape.
It represents the starting and stopping point of a flow chart.
Oval: STOPOval: START
Parallelogram: Read A,BInput/Output Symbol:
It is parallelogram shaped.
It represents either input or output operation regardless of input or output method.
Parallelogram: Print XParallelogram: Input X,Y
Processing Symbol:
It is like a rectangular block.
It represents processing symbol.
It shows all the calculations.
S = X + 2
 
X = (A+B)*C
 

Question: Convert the algorithm of question 9.08 into a flowchart.

*** Do with the help of teacher and do as many examples as you can.

Question: Your table lamp is not in working order. Develop a flow chart for locating the trouble in it. The trouble may be either in the plug or in the connecting wire or the bulb itself may be fused.
*** Do with the help of teacher and do as many examples as you can.

Question: Develop a flowchart for identifying and printing an odd number.
*** Do with the help of teacher and do as many examples as you can.

Question Develop a flowchart for finding printing the sum of squares of all the natural numbers between 2 and 10.
*** Do with the help of teacher and do as many examples as you can.

Question: What is meant by a computer program?
A computer program consists of series of instructions. A computer executes these instructions in a sequence. Computer instructions are of the following five types:
i)            Input/Output
ii)           Control
iii)         Arithmetic
iv)         Logical Instructions
v)           Specification instructions.

Question: Mention the advantages of programming in BASIC.
i)            It is most commonly used language by teachers and students.
ii)           It is easy to learn and use.
iii)         Many terms in BASIC are simple English words.
iv)         It can be used to solve many problems i.e. business, medicine, science and engineering etc.
v)           It is simple and versatile (flexible) language.

Question: What is debugging? Why it is necessary to test or debug a program.
The process of finding and removing errors from a computer program is called debugging.
Why it is necessary?
i)            It is necessary to ensure that program works correctly.
ii)           It is also necessary to check the reliability and credibility of program.
iii)         If there are errors then they should be removed.
iv)         The errors present in program can be of three types:
a.   Logical
b.   Syntax
c.    Execution.

Question: Mention some of the errors that occur in computer programming.

Logical Errors:
  • The errors are caused due to improper use of formula or Wrong use of symbols.
  • For Example:
Speed = Distance * Time             (Incorrect)
Speed = Distance / Time              (Correct)
  • A computer cannot detect such errors and give wrong results.
  • To detect these errors, we run the program with test data.
  • If logical error is found it is removed by making necessary changes.

Syntax Errors:
  • These errors are caused due to wrong use of programming language. For example incorrect punctuation, incorrect word sequence, undefined terms etc.
  • These errors are automatically pointed out by language processors.
  • For example:
C      =      A + /B                       (Incorrect)
C      =      A + B or A / B             (Correct)

Execution Errors:
  • These errors are caused due to limitation of the computer.
  • For example, Division of a number with zero. Computer could not execute it.
  • These errors are also like logical errors and difficult to locate.

Question: Why it is necessary to document a program?
i)            A useful program becomes useless if it is not documented properly.
ii)           Well documented program are extremely valuable.
iii)         Documented help someone who want to modify the program at later stage.
iv)         Documentation is of two types: User Documentation and Technical Documentation.


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Download Class Notes: Download 10th Class Computer Science Notes (Unit-09) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad
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