Download 10th Class Computer Science Notes (Unit-10) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad

Download 10th Class Computer Science Notes (Unit # 10) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad.

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Computer Science Notes for 10th Class / SSC-II (Federal Board, Islamabad)

THEORY

Question: Write a note on BASIC and describe some of its features.
BASIC is first high level language. It is used on micro-computers. Microsoft wrote first interpreter of BASIC. It has many versions. Most popular versions are GW-BASIC and QBASIC.
Features:
i)            It is easy and student friendly language.
ii)           It is general purpose language.
iii)         It is suitable for scientific and commercial programming.
iv)         It has simple syntax rules. Therefore it is easy to test and debug.
v)           Communication with computers is simple with it.
vi)         It is good for computers having less memory.

Question: What types of entries are made in BASIC? What is difference between commands and statements?
There are three types of entries that we can make in BASIC. They are:
i)            Commands
ii)           Program Statements
iii)         Data

Difference between commands & statements:

Commands
Statements
Commands are generally executable in the direct mode.
Commands usually perform some type of program maintenance such as editing, clearing, running, or saving programs.
Statements run in the compiler’s mode.
Statements are the part of a computer program

Question: Describe briefly the following commands:
Auto:
It generates an automatic line number each time <ENTER> key is pressed.
Delete:
It deletes Program lines or line range.
List:
It is used to display the program or part of the program currently in memory.

Renum:
It is sued to re-number program lines without changing the order of program lines.
System:
It is used to exit BASIC to return to DOS by entering the SYSTEM command.

Question: How many types of variables names are used in BASIC? Give examples of invalid variable names with explanations.
Variables are names used to represent certain quantities in BASIC. There are two types of variables used in BASIC. They are:
i)            Numeric variables
ii)           String variables
Invalid Variable Name
Reason
Valid Variable Name
5NUM
Cannot begin with a digit
NUM5
TOT PAY
Blank spaces are not allowed
TOTPAY
NET-PAY
Hyphen not allowed
NETPAY
B&W
Special symbol (&) not allowed
BANDW
TAX$
$ symbol invalid for numeric variable name
TAX
LIST
Cannot use reserve words
-

Question: Describe various types of constants used in BASIC with examples.
Something that does not change its value during execution of the program is called constant. It has following types:
Numeric Constants:
Numeric constants are positive or negative numbers. For example 23, -4.76 and +53.15 etc. Numeric constants cannot contain commas.
String Constants:
A string constant is any set of (maximum 2555) characters enclosed in quotation marks. Blank spaces may also be included but not quotation marks. For example “I LOVE PAKISTAN”, “23RD MARCH”, AND “43+17=?” etc.

Question: Explain various types of operators used in BASIC with examples.
Operators perform mathematical or logical operations on values. It has following types:

1-Arithmetic Operators:
These operators perform arithmetic operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication etc.
Operation
Operator
Arithmetic Example
Basic Example
Addition
+
5 + 8
5 + 8
Subtraction
-
5 – 3
5 – 3
Multiplication
*
5 x 3
5 * 3
Division
/
5 ÷ 3
5 / 3
2-Relational Operators:
These are used to relate or compare two quantities
Operator
Relation
Example
=
Equality
If A = 15 Then STOP
< 
Less Than
If M < 50 Then Print FAIL
> 
Greater Than
If M > 80 Then Print A+
3-Logical Operators:
Logical Operators such as AND, OR, NOT, NAND, NOR perform in the same way as in Boolean algebra. The result of these logical operations would be either true or false. These operators decide the flow of a program.
4-Functional Operators:
There are some built-in functions such as ABS, INT, FIX, RND, SQR, LOG, SIN and COS. These functions make the programming much simpler.

Question: Pick out numeric and strings from the following data items:
“LAHORE” ;27; “60W”; 1.008; “16”; 20km; “23RD MARCH”; IX;A-1.
Numeric:
27; 1.008; 16; IX.
Strings:
LAHORE”; “60W”; 20km; “23RD MARCH”; A-1

Question: How does computer know whether an instruction you types is a program?






Question: What commands clears the computer’s memory?






Question: What will be the output? When you enter
PRINT “37 C = ” 37*9/5+32
98.6 F

Question: Write a note on assignment statements with examples.
The assignment statement is used when the programmer wishes to give a variable an initial value that will be used throughout the program, or when a variable is assigned a new value as a result of computation or operation. For example the following statements assign number “5” to the variable M, and name “KASHIF NAEEM” to the variable NAME$: -
40     M      =      34
90     NAM$ =      “KASHIF NAEEM”

The assignment statement has following format: -
Line # (LET) variable name = variable or expression

Question: What is the difference between STOP and END statement? Explain it with examples.
STOP Statement:
STOP statement is used to stop the program during execution at any instance, whenever and wherever required. For example:
10     Let A = 5
20     Let B = 11
30     Let C = (A + B) / 2
40     STOP
50     PRINT C
60     END
END Statement:
END statement tells the computer where a certain program ends. For example:
10     Let A = 5
20     Let B = 11
30     Let C = (A + B) / 2
40     PRINT C
50     END

=*=*=*=*=

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