Download 10th Class Physics Notes (Unit # 15) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad

Download 10th Class Physics Notes (Unit # 15) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad

Very Easy, Updated & Comprehensive Notes for all types of students i.e. Average / Extra Ordinary

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Download 10th Class Physics Notes (Unit # 15) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad

THEORY

Question: Draw the lines of force in case of straight current carrying conductor?
When electric current flows in straight conductor, then shape of lines of magnetic field is of concentric circles.

Question: Describe the magnetic field of a current carrying solenoid?
i)      A solenoid is a closely wound cylindrical coil of insulated wire.
        ***Draw fig here from book here.
ii)     These lines emerge out from one end of solenoid and after encircling around it, enter into it through other end.
iii)    Inside the solenoid the lines of force are parallel and all point in the same direction.
iv)     The pattern of these lines resemble with the lines of magnet.
v)     Due to this resemblance we can say that one end of solenoid behaves like North Pole and other like South Pole.
vi)     The polarity of a current carrying solenoid can be determined by the following rules.
a)      “Hold the solenoid in your right hand by curling the fingers in the direction of the current, the stretched thumb would indicate towards the North Pole.”
b)     Hold down the end of the current carrying solenoid in front of you, if the direction of current flow through this end is anticlockwise, it would be North Pole, otherwise it would be a south pole.”

Question: How direction of lines of force can be determined?
The direction of lines of force can be determined by the right hand rule. If we grasp the current carrying conductor in our right hand with the thumb being stretched in the direction of current, the fingers would curl in the direction of lines of force.

Question: Describe the nature of force on a current carrying conductor in a magnetic field?
When a current carrying conductor is placed in magnetic field, it experiences a force, which is described in experiment below: -
Experiment: -
i)            Take a large size cork and fix two iron nails into opposite faces.
ii)           Nails should not touch each other in cork.
iii)         Clamp the cork on a stand so that the nails are horizontal.
iv)         Now take thick wire and bend it in U shape and make hooks at its tow ends.
v)           Now suspend U shaped wire such that it passed from horseshoe magnet.
***Draw Fig here from book.
vi)         Connect the two nails with battery and switch.
vii)        Press the switch key. Now current will start flowing in wire and wire will moves inwards.
viii)      This movement of wire is due to the force, which is acting on the side AB of the wire.
ix)         The direction of force acting on side AB of the wire can be found by Fleming’s left hand rule.

Fleming’s left hand rule: -

“According to this rule, stretch the thumb, forefinger and the middle finger of the left hand mutually at right angles to each other. If the forefinger points in the direction of magnetic field, the middle finger in the direction of the current, then the thumb would indicate the direction of the force acting on the conductor.”
x)           Experiments shows that force acting upon the conductor in such a case is directly proportional to sin 0.
xi)         So, if the conductor is placed parallel to the field, no force would act upon the conductor because the value of sin0 is zero in this case.

Question: Write a detailed note on D.C Motor?
Structure: -
i)            It consists of rectangular coil abcd mounted on a spindle so that it can rotate between the poles of a permanent magnet.
ii)           A copper ring is fixed on the spindle of the coil. This ring split into two halves S1 and S2.
iii)         Two carbon brushes X and Y are caused to press lightly against the rings.
iv)         When these brushes are connected to a battery, the coil starts rotating.
***Draw fig from book here.
Function: -
i)            Let the coil is in horizontal position when the current is passed.
ii)           Ring S1 is in contact with brush X and S2 with Y.
iii)         According to Fleming’s left hand rule, the force acting on side ab is directed upward and onside cd is directed downwards.
iv)         Under the action of these two forces, a couple acts on coil, which causes it to rotate clockwise.
v)           When coil reaches the vertical position, the brushes reach to the vacant space between the split rings and their connection with the coil is cut off and no current would flow.
vi)         But coil continue to move beyond vertical position due to momentum.
vii)        Connection of split rings with brushes is again established.
viii)      But this time brush X is in contact with the ring S2.
ix)         Now the direction of flow of current is reversed but coil continue its rotation clockwise.
x)           In this way D.C Motor converts the electrical energy into mechanical energy, which is utilized for different types of work.

Question: Explain the term Electromagnetic Induction?
We know that the lines of force are in the form of concentric circles. In the case of bar magnet lines start from North Pole and end at South Pole. Then they pass from South Pole to North Pole through the magnet, thus making a closed loop. The number of magnetic lines of force passing through any surface is known as magnetic flux through that surface.
If magnetic flux through a coil or a solenoid is changing, an emf is induced in it. This can be explained by an experiment.
Experiment: -
i)            Take a solenoid and connect a galvanometer with its two ends.
ii)           If North Pole quickly moved towards the end A of solenoid, the needle of galvanometer gets deflected, which shows that an emf has been generated in the solenoid.
iii)         Now stop the motion of magnet, we shall see that deflection in the galvanometer gets zero.
iv)         This means that induced current flows only when magnet is moving.
v)           The amount of deflection in galvanometer depends upon the speed of magnet.
vi)         If North Pole moved away from end A, again galvanometer shows deflection but this time opposite in direction.
vii)        Similar results will be obtained if magnet is kept stationary and solenoid is moved towards or away from magnet.

From this experiment we conclude that an emf is induced in the coil when there is relative motion between coil and magnet. This phenomenon is called electromagnetic induction.
According to Faraday: -
“The value of the induced emf is directly proportional to the rate of change of flux. This is knows as Faraday’s Law of Electromagnetic induction.”

Question: Write a detailed note on A.C Generator?
A generator, which produces or generates alternating e.m.f. is called A.C Generator.

Construction: -

i)            It consists of a rectangular coil, which is rotated between poles of a permanent magnet.
ii)           The ends of wire of coil are soldered with two circular slip rings. These rings are fixed on arm of the coil.
iii)         Two carbon brushes are kept in contact with these slip rings.
iv)         At outside surface of slip rings connections are taken out to draw electric current from the coil.

Function: -

i)            The induced emf is generated when coil is rotated by applying mechanical energy.
ii)           Suppose, at the start, coil is vertical with its side A upward.
iii)         In this position side A and B are moving along the direction of lines of magnetic field. Therefore rate of change of magnetic flux is zero. Hence induced emf is also zero.
iv)         After one quarter rotation, side A and B are moving at right angle to the direction of magnetic lines of force, so rate of change of magnetic flux is maximum and maximum emf is obtained.
v)           After half quarter rotation, again side A and B move parallel to lines of magnetic field, so magnetic flux change and emf will be again zero.
vi)         After three quarter rotation, side A and B are moving at right angle to the direction of magnetic lines of force, so rate of change of magnetic flux is again maximum and again maximum emf is obtained.
vii)        Similar graph is completed for every next complete rotation of coil.

Question: Write a note on mutual induction?
***Draw fig from book.
i)            In fig two coils X and Y are shown placed close to each other.
ii)           Coil X is connected to battery and coil Y is connected to galvanometer.
iii)         When switch is closed galvanometer shows deflection showing that current is flowing.
iv)         Similarly when switch is open, galvanometer shows opposite deflection.
v)           We can explain these observations on the basis of magnetic flux passing through passing through two coils.
vi)         So we can say that If a current is induced in a circuit due to a change of current in another circuit, this phenomenon is known as mutual induction.

Question: Write a note on Self Induction?
i)            We know that when current passes through a coil, it produces magnetic field.
ii)           If the current passing through the coil changes, then the magnetic field produced by it also changes, which results in a change in the number of lines of force passing through the coil.
iii)         In other words, the magnetic flux linked with the coil changes.
iv)         This causes an induced emf in the coil which is known as self induced emf and this phenomenon is called self induction.

Question: Write a note on transformer?
This is an electrical device, which is used to increase or decrease the value of alternating voltage.
Structure: -
i)            It consists of two coils, which are wound on two different sides of a rectangular iron core.
ii)           One coil is called primary other is called secondary.
Function: -
i)            The alternating voltage, whose value is to be altered, is supplied to the primary due to which an alternating current begins to flow through it.
ii)           This current creates a continuously changing magnetic flux through the primary coil.
iii)         The iron core enhances the magnetic flux to a very large value.
iv)         As the flux is continuously changing, therefore, in accordance with the principal of mutual induction, an alternating voltage is induced across the secondary coil.
v)           The value of this voltage depends upon the number of turns in the primary and secondary coils.
vi)         If
a.   Np = No. of turns in the primary coil.
b.   Ns = No. of turns in the secondary coil.
c.    Ep = Voltage applied across primary coil.
d.   Es = The required voltage generated
Then
Es / Ep       =      Ns / Np
vii)        According to this formula, if the voltage applied across primary coil is to be decreased, i.e. Es < Dp, then Ns would also be smaller as compared to Np. Such a transfer is called step down transfer.
viii)      On the other hand if voltage applied to the primary coil is to be increased, the number of turns in the secondary would be large as compared to number of turns in the primary. Such a transfer is known as a step up transformer.


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Download Class Notes: Download 10th Class Physics Notes (Unit # 15) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad
Download 10th Class Physics Notes (Unit # 15) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad
Download 10th Class Physics Notes (Unit # 15) for Federal Board (FBISE) Islamabad
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