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Download 9th Class Computer Science Notes (Unit # 6) for Federal Board (FBISE) & Punjab Boards

9th Class Computer Science Notes (Unit # 6) for FBISE Islamabad / Punjab Boards. Class 9 / IX / SSC / Matric. Download Complete Guide / Key Book as PDF. These notes are as per latest syllabus / course prescribed by Federal Board of Intermediate & Secondary Education (FBISE) Islamabad and all Boards of Punjab Province. Students of Sindh, KPK, Balochistan and Azad Kashmir can also utilize these notes as per their course / books.

9th Class Computer Science Notes (Unit # 6) for FBISE Islamabad / Punjab Boards

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9th Class Computer Science Notes (Unit # 6) for FBISE Islamabad / Punjab Boards

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SHORT QUESTIONS

 

Define cybercrime.

Any crime done by means of computer and information technology by having unlawful access to others computers is called cybercrime.

 

What is the importance of computer security?

Computer security refers to protecting computer hardware, software and information stored on computer from threats.

 

Importance of Computer Security:

  • Computer users exchange information with each other over internet. This can infect a user’s computer with virus or other types of malicious software.
  • Computer security or safety is important for computer users to protect their computer from different threats.
  • It is necessary to install security software such as firewall, antivirus and spyware on computers.

 

Differentiate between hacker and cracker.

Hacker:

  • A person who illegally breaks into others computer systems is known as hacker.
  • Hackers are computer experts who try to gain unauthorized access to computer systems for stealing and corrupting
  • Most of the hackers break into computers for financial benefits.
  • Hackers have in-depth knowledge of network programming and can create tools and malicious software.
  • For example, a hacker develops software in which a dictionary files is loaded that contains all the dictionary words. This method works if the user is having a simple password that exists in the dictionary.

Cracker:

  • A person who breaks into computer systems without permission using hacking tools is known as cracker.
  • Most of the crackers do not have professional computer skill to hack computer systems but they have knowledge about using hacking tools.
  • Crackers break into computers and cause serious damage.
  • For example, they also break into Web servers and replace the home page of a website with a page of their own design.

 

Describe any five symptoms of malware.

  • The computer does not start or it reboots automatically when it is on.
  • Different types of error messages appear on the screen.
  • Programs do not run in a normal way.
  • Computer runs very slow.
  • New files or folders are created on the hard disk.
  • Folders are deleted or changed on the hard disk.

Differentiate between authentication and authorization.

Authentication:

  • Authentication means identifying a person based on a method such as Username and Password.
  • For example when a user wants to login to his email account, he is asked to enter username and password to verify his identity.
  • This is authentication.

Authorization:

  • Authorization means to give someone permission to do something.
  • For example, if correct username and password are entered, the user is authorized or allowed to check his emails, send email or perform other tasks related with email service.
  • This is authorization.

 

Which authentication methodology provides highly secure identification and verification? Justify your answer.

Biometrics provides highly secure identification and personal verification characteristics of individuals such as features of face, hand geometry, retina, voice and fingerprint. Biometrics based systems are used for financial transactions, electronic banking and personal data privacy.

Justification:

  • Biometrics provides more accurate authentication than using username and password or PIN.
  • Biometrics is associated with a particular individual.
  • Hence, it cannot be borrowed, stolen or forgotten.
  • Forging in biometrics is practically impossible.

 

What is meant by information privacy?

  • It is individual’s right to the privacy of his/her personal information.
  • Now a days, people are concerned that computers may be taking away their privacy.
  • The Data Protection Act protects the rights of the individuals against misuse of personal organization.
  • Organizations that hold the information should not allow unauthorized people to have access to information.

 

Give any three drawbacks of software piracy?

  • Software piracy refers to making of unauthorized copies of copyrighted software and distributing it.
  • Pirated software on CDs is a very common source of spreading malware on computers because these are often infected.
  • If users download pirated music, movies, programs, etc. for free, their computers may be infected because pirated downloads often contain viruses, spyware or other malicious programs.

 

What types of problems may be faced if computer users do not comply with the moral guidelines of computer ethics?

  • Computer users can use Computer to harm other people.
  • Computer users can use Computer to break into others computer systems.
  • Computer users can read documents and emails of other users without their consent.
  • Computer users can use Computer to make illegal copies of copyright software and sell it for financial benefit.
  • Computer users who have special computer knowledge and ability will create malicious software and spread it to other computers.
  • Computer users can commit any types of crime with the help of computer technology.
  • Computer users can not respect the privacy of others.

 

Name any three places where authentication of people is required.

  • Username and password are used to authorize users to have access to computer systems, e-mail account, bank account and other services available on computer.
  • PINS are most commonly used with debit and credit cards in retail stores withdraw cash from ATM machines.
  • Access cards are commonly used to open security gates in offices where unauthorized people are not allowed to enter.

 

 

LONG QUESTIONS

 

 

Define malware and describe its types.

Malware is malicious software. It comprises of a number of harmful software that are threats to all computer users. Malware is created for attack on privacy, spying, destruction and financial benefits.

Types of malware:

Most common types of malware are Computer viruses, Worms, Spyware and Adware.

Computer Viruses:

  • A computer virus is a type of malware that spreads by inserting a copy of itself into another program or file.
  • Most of the viruses are attached to executable files.
  • Viruses spread and infect other files when a computer user opens the infected program or file.
  • Viruses also spread from infected drive, CD/DVD or infected e-mail attachments.
  • Some viruses are not very harmful they are simply annoying.
  • Some viruses can seriously damage the hardware, software or the information stored on the computer.
  • Viruses can slow down the computer.
  • For example MyDoom virus quickly infected the million computers in 2004.

Worms:

  • A worm is a malware that transmit itself over a network to infect other computers
  • Worm can be harmful like a virus.
  • It spreads automatically in computer networks and replicates itself.
  • It can travel from computer to computer without any human action
  • It enters a computer through a weakness in the operating system of the computer.
  • Most of the worms cause some harm to the network such as slowing down communication by increasing network traffic.
  • For example Code Red and Fizzer

Spyware:

  • Spyware programs are developed to spy on computer users by gathering information about their activities on the computer
  • Spyware is developed for the personal benefit of the creator.
  • It performs secret operations such as stealing password or banking PIN or other personal information about user.
  • It infects computers though installation of software form internet.
  • It slows down the performance of infected computer.
  • Most the spyware is designed to be difficult to remove.
  • For example, Flame.

Adware:

  • Adware is a malware that attaches itself to free software on the internet and infects computer when such software is downloaded.
  • It pops up advertisements during execution of infected program.
  • Pop-up block option in browsers helps protect computer from adware.
  • Some adware may also collect user information without their permission.

 

Explain how malware spreads.

The malware spreads by the following ways:

Infected Flash Drives/CDs:

Malware can infect computers in which anti-malware software is not installed through infected flash drives and CDs.

Pirated Software:

Pirated software on CDs is a very common source of spreading malware on computers because these are often infected.

Network and Internet:

Computers connected to network get infected with malware when information is exchanged with other computers. Computers are also infected while using Internet when users download something or browse infected Web sites.

E-mail Attachments:

Opening e-mail attachments from a stranger or from an unknown address can infect computer with malware.

 

 

 

Explain how to protect computer systems from virus attacks.

We have to install the following software to safeguard computer against viruses, worms, adware and spyware:

 

Antivirus software:

  • Antivirus software is a computer program that detects and removes viruses and other types of malware.
  • Computer user should install it on computer and update it regularly.
  • Most antivirus programs have an auto-update feature.
  • Whenever a user connects a flash drive or any other type of storage device to computer, he must run it through antivirus software to ensure that it does not contain virus.
  • Some commonly used antivirus programs are Norton Antivirus, Kaspersky Antivirus, AVG antivirus, Bit Defender and McAfee Antivirus.

 

Anti-spyware programs:

  • Anti-spyware is a computer program that detects spyware infection on computer and removes them.
  • It helps to protect computer against security threats caused by spyware and other types of malware.
  • Computer user should install it in computer and regularly update it to safeguard computer against new threats.
  • Anti-spyware program runs in the background of computer and continually scans for spyware threats.
  • Some commonly used Anti-spyware programs are Norton Anti-spyware, SpySweeper, Spybot-Seach & Destroy, Spyware Doctor and AVG Anti-spyware.

 

What are the common methodologies used for authentication purpose.

Following are common methodologies used for authentication purpose.

 

Username and Password:

  • A username is a name that identifies a person on a computer system.
  • Username is generally used with a password.
  • The username and password combination is known as login information.
  • Username and password are used to authorize users to have access to computer systems, e-mail account, bank account and other services available on computer.
  • Username is the known part of user’s login information whereas password is secret.
  • If it is known by a person it could be misused with bad intention.

Personal Identification Number (PIN):

  • PIN is a confidential numeric password used to authenticate a use to get access to a computer system.
  • When a user enters the PIN, it is searched in the computer.
  • PINS are most commonly used with debit and credit cards in retail stores and many other places for payment of bills.
  • It is also used with ATM cards to withdraw cash from ATM machines.

Access Cards:

  • Access cards are very similar in appearance to credit cards. They do not require username, password or PIN.
  • They are commonly used to open security gates in offices and many other places, where unauthorized people are not allowed to enter.
  • Access cards are also sued to open barriers in parking areas. They are an alternative to key for opening hotel room, etc.

Biometrics:

  • Biometrics refers to authentication methods based on physical characteristics of individuals such as features of face, geometry, retina, voice and fingerprint.
  • It provides highly secure identification and personal verification technologies. Biometrics based systems are used for financial transactions, electronic banking and personal data privacy.
  • It provides more accurate authentication than using username and password or PIN.
  • Biometrics is associated with particular individual.
  • Hence, it cannot be borrowed, stolen or forgotten. Forging in biometrics is practically impossible.

 

Define computer ethics and write some important moral guidelines for ethical use of computer technology.

Computer ethics means an acceptable behavior for using computer technology. Computer user should be honest, respect the rights of others on the internet and obey laws that apply to online behavior. We should not use bad language while chatting and social networking. We need to respect others views and should not criticize people.

Ethical Use of Computer:

  1. Computer should not be used to harm other people.
  2. Computer users should not break into others computer systems to steal, change or destroy information.
  • Computer users should not read documents and e-mails of others.
  1. People should not make illegal copies of copyright software.
  2. Computer programmers users should not create malicious software.
  3. People should not commit any type of crime with the help of computers.
  • Computer users should respect the privacy of others.

 

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